Magoosh GRE


| April 5, 2015


1.1 Background
One of the major concerns of the organisation is its profitability, hence the need for efficiency. In this era, organisations are in a continuous state of competition and this has intensified the need to improve employee’s performances and invariably that of the organisation (Barney, 1995). Organisations are faced with a quickly changing environment and this has mean that they have to develop a more focused and coherent approach in how they manage people. And therefore the same way that organisations need a strategy for marketing or operation, they also need a strategy for managing their human resource (HR). This has been challenging for employers for a long time and has been dealt with in different ways across organisations over time (Gospel, 1992).

HRM is the strategic approach to the management of an organisation’s most valued assets – the employees who work together individually and collectively to achieve the aims and objectives of the business (Mead and Andrews, 2009). It also involves recruiting and selecting people, training and developing their capabilities, motivating and compensating their services vis-à-vis the job and organisational requirement (Harzing and Ruysseveldt, 2009). The assertion that employee’s performance is directly related to employees’ motivation has been corroborated by different management theories (Nohria et al, 2008).

Employee resourcing is a tool used to organisations to make sure that they get the employees needed and use them efficiently (Spector, 2000). People work with an organisation and stay there when there are effective HR practices that give them a supportive work environment, thus, it is imperative that organisations develop effective policies that enable them to recruit, select, and retain competent employees (Locke and Latham, 1990). One of the key questions in all organisations is how to get employees to perform well. Most writers have established that the basic foundation for retaining high performing employees is to have them motivated (Steer et al., 2004). This is because a motivated employee is likely to perform better. Many researchers in the area of organisational performance have argued that employee motivation is an important element in individual and organisational performance and is also a significant factor in people’s decision to quit working in an organisation (Steer et al., 2004; Tzeng, 2002). Based on this, Frederick Herzberg famously said: “If you want people to do a good job, give them a good job to do.”

Hence, it is vital for any organisation to constantly discover different ways to motivate employees so as to improve performance, productivity and quality, which will also reflects on the overall performance of the company and help maintain competitive advantage in the market. This is due, in part to the fact that what motivates employees’ changes continuously (Buford et al, 1995). This research is interested in investigating motivation in organisation.

1.2 Statement of the Problem and Research Questions
The Nigerian banking sector has grown from a few institutions who primarily were involved in deposit acceptance and trade finance into a complex multiplayer market where large number of financial institutions, commercial banks operate with diverse products and services. On a daily basis, banks are involved in various activities that require appropriate manpower and a highly effective team to function effectively. As such, corporate goals are set and translated into viable realities only when employees play their due roles in achieving desired results (Ovadje and Ankomah, 2001).

In today’s chaotic business environment, success depends on employees utilising their talents. Despite the myriad of available theories and practices, there have always been a misconception around motivation because individuals are motivated by different things or needs and in different ways (Ghebregiorgis and Karsten, 2007).

Over time, it has been established that the main problem towards an effective motivation system is the ability for managers to examine and analyse the employee’s needs. Furthermore, there exist some contradiction between employee’s identification of his/her need and the company’s identification of the employee’s needs. This is due to the fact that employees are different and are motivated by different factors. Also, not all employees’ needs would correspond to the organisation’s needs; hence some needs may relate entirely to the individual’s private life and be neutral to company’s goals (Meads and Andrews, 2009).

Therefore, managerial strategies and tactics must be broad based in order to address the motivation concerning individual employees (Guest, 1997). It is in light of this that the following research questions are formulated:
• What are the factors that can motivate employees to improve their performance?
• What are the impacts of the available motivational factors on employee’s performance?
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The primary aim of this research is investigate the important factors that are essential in motivating employees, as well as examining the impact of motivation on employee’s performance. In order to critically examine the impacts of motivation on employees’ performance, a specific case study of the banking industry in Nigeria will be used. Three specific aims are outlined based on the research questions:
• To determine the motivational strategies used by management in the banking sector in Nigeria.
• To identify the motivational factors that directly influences employee’s performance.
• To examine how effective these motivational factors are on employee’s performances.

The research concludes by examining possible improvements of the present motivation systems used by managers.

1.4 Significance of the Study
It is apparent that an organisation cannot survive without human resources and thus hence the role of employees cannot be overemphasized. According to Mead and Andrew (2003), motivation can be seen as the foundation of management. It is the foremost task of every manager to create the zeal to work among employees and consequently motivate them. Hence motivation is an effective instrument in inspiring the work force to achieve organisational goals. However, it is pertinent to understand that although employee may be greatly capable of performing some work, nothing can be achieved if they is not willing to work. In simple terms, motivation is the creation of a will to work. It is effective and successful not only in having an order or instruction accepted but also in gaining a determination to ensure that it is accomplished efficiently and effectively (Freemantle, 2001).

There are several benefits of having a highly motivated workforce including greater employee satisfaction, reduced rate of labor’s turnover, grievance and absenteeism, and less friction among workers (Gary, 2004). It is therefore important that an organisation continues to motivate its employees for continuous improved performance. This is particularly so since the extent of employees motivation is reflected in their job performances.

For the objectives of an organisation to be attained, and to motivate employees effectively, there is the need to understand the different types of motivation theories, strategies and concepts. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to evaluate motivation of employees in an organisation. It will also enlighten employees and management on different effective ways to motivate employees; how this can be beneficial to the overall performance of the organisation and how the organisation can achieve the efficiency to develop a substantial organisational culture and human resource policies.

1.5 Outline of the Dissertation
The rest of this thesis is divided into four further chapters. Chapter 2 is the Literature Review, which critically examines of the literature relating to motivation in the organisation. Chapter 3 outlines the Research Methodology, including research purpose, research design, sampling design, data collection, and data analysis. Chapter 4 presents the Results and Analysis of the data collected. Chapter 5 concludes the paper with a discussion of the data collected, as well as presenting recommendations. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the limitations of the research.

2.1 Introduction
Motivation is probably one of the most researched areas of management. If a manager can grasp what will motivate his/her employees, that manager will have more productive force (Mullins, 1996). In order to motivate workers to work for the organisational goals, managers must determine the needs of employees, factors that motivate them and provide an avenue in which appropriate incentives are available for their satisfaction. If the management is successful in doing so, there will be a positive impact on the willingness of the workers to work and hence the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation will be increased (Draftke and Kossem, 2002).

There are several competing theories that attempt to explain the nature of motivation (Hammer, 1979). Each theory seeks to rationalize the behaviour of human beings and suggest what managers can do to affect their employees’ behaviour. The perspective taken by sociologists leads them to investigate the effect that the social environment (both the wider societal influences and the influence of specific social groupings) has on worker’s motivation. Based on this focus, psychological approaches generally concentrate on analyzing the internal cognitive development of individuals, even though these approaches also recognize that behaviour can be affected to some degree by the social environment.

To tackle these different models as comprehensively as possible, this chapter is divided into five main sections. Section 2.2 defines motivation and its sources. Section 2.3 discusses the two major techniques that exist for management of both control and arrangement of workers – scientific management and human relations – which provide the basis for understanding of motivation. Section 2.4 discusses three main early theories of motivation: Maslow, McClelland, and Herzberg. Section 2.5 discusses Locke and Latham’s (2004) the integrated model of work motivation. Finally, Section 2.6 discusses newer theories of motivation, focusing on high performance work systems and Lindner’s System of Employee. The chapter concludes with a brief summary.

2.2 What is Motivation?
Defining and measuring motivation is complicated because motivation by itself is not overtly observable and that behavioural observations consequently lead us to infer the motivational processes (Swezey, 1994). Motivation is generally correlated with the question of what energises and arouses behaviour. Kanfer (1990) argues that the intensity of action, the direction of behaviour, and diligence of behaviour patterns over time allow us to make inferences about motivation (Swezey, 1994).

The word motivation is derived from the Latin word ‘‘movere”, which means, “to move” (Kretiner, 2004). According to Higgins, (1994), motivation has been defined as: a psychological process that serves as an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (cited in Lindner, 1998): a predisposition to behave in a purposeful manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, and Lindner, 1995 cited in Lindner, 1998).

According to Greenberg and Baron (2000), motivation can be divided into three main parts. The first part looks at the stimulation that deals with the drive, or energy behind an individual’s action. Often times, people tend to be guided by their interest in creating a good impression on others, doing interesting work and being successful at what they do. The second part referees to the choices people make and the direction their behaviour takes. Lastly, the third part deals with maintaining behaviour, which clearly defines how long people, have to persist at attempting to meet their goals. According to Antomioni (1999), motivation can be described as “the amount of effort people are willing to put in their work depending on the degree to which they feel their needs will be satisfied.” Consequently, individuals become de-motivated if they feel something in the organisation hinders them from attaining positive outcomes.

It is evident from the above definitions that, in general, motivation is basically concerned with factors that propel certain human actions or inactions over a given period of time provided that the prevailing conditions are present. Further more the definitions imply that it is necessary that there exists “an invisible force” to impel people to do something in return (Freemantle, 2001). It could also be deduced from the various definitions that having a motivated work force or establishing an environment where high degree of motivation are created and maintained remain a challenge for today’s management. This challenge stems from the fact that motivation is not a static trait, as it could vary with changes in personal, financial, psychological, or social factors (Freemantle, 2001). Hence, for this research study, the definition of motivation by Greenberg and Baron (2003) will be adopted, as it is more realistic and simple as it considers the individual and his performance. Greenberg and Baron defines motivation as “The set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behaviour towards attaining some goal” (Greenberg and Baron, 2003).

The sources of motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic (Jones and George, 2004). An intrinsically motivated behaviour is a behaviour that is performed for one’s own purpose, while extrinsically motivated behaviours are performed to obtain rewards or to avoid punishment. Thus, a manager can attempt stimulating the employee’s intrinsic motivation, but cannot create the intrinsic motivation for that employee. This implies that, for example, a manager should rather try to discover factors would drive an employee to smile at customers, than simply instruct the employee to smile at customers (Freemantle, 2001).

2.3 Scientific Management and Human Relations
For several decades, different researchers have studied the topics of motivation and employee performance. In the late 1930s, the interest in studying work motivation was stimulated in large part by the Hawthorne studies conducted by Frederick Taylor (Locke and Latham, 2004). These studies investigated the effect of working conditions on employee performance and productivity (Finchmam and Rhodes, 1999). These studies investigated the effect of working conditions on employee performance and productivity (Finchmam and Rhodes, 1999). With the findings in these studies, it was concluded that employees are not only motivated by money and that the behaviour of employee is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973 in Lindner, 1998). Following the publication of the Hawthorne studies’ results, the need to motivate employees became the primary focus of managers and researchers (Terpstra, 1979 in Lindner, 1998). This section first discusses the Scientific Management approach and then the Human Relations approach to employee motivation.
Scientific Management, also called Taylorism after Frederick Winslow Taylor who developed it, emerged from early issues with worker motivation (Taylor, 1947). Scientific Management is both a theory of worker motivation as well as being a philosophy of management. This theory is principally aimed at dealing with the issue of shirking, that is employees not doing enough work, which was later called restriction of output (Fox, 1966). One of the key principles behind Scientific Management is the recommendation that managers collect the enormous amount of traditional knowledge that is often contained only in the heads of employees and then takes these and create laws, rules, and mathematical formulae and so using rule of thumb (this usually know as work study or time and motion study) to replace guess work. A second key principle behind Scientific Management is the ‘scientific’ selection, development, and motivation of employees and the division of work between managers and general employees. The main idea behind this is that there is one ‘right’ way to gain efficiency in output. While Scientific Management was widely used for a period of time, and indeed is still used now, there have been criticisms of this management philosophy for several reasons. For example, some people have argued that ‘a fair day’s work’ is not something that can be measured scientifically. Others have noted that people at work are motivated by more than simply economic reward and also that there are managers that sometimes reduce employees’ wages even when these are earned by very hard work.

In contrast to this, the Human Relations, which dominated British management through until the mid-1950s (Child, 1969), had underlying assumptions that were different from Taylorism. Important assumption include the idea that of non-monetary ‘social’ reward for work is important to employees, that employees’ attitudes and behaviour were influenced mainly by quality of supervision, and that trade unionism is unwarranted. So while Scientific Management presented the organisation as being made up of individuals and focuses on the ‘rational’ individual, Human Relations presented the organisation as made up of complex social structures and is concerned with groups composed of ‘irrational’ workers. Still, there are some similarities between the two management philosophies, for example, both emphasise the importance of organisational leadership (Fox, 1966).

Later researchers presented the Neo-Human Relations school of management philosophy, which presented the view that “people in work organisations will work more efficiently if they are allowed to participate more in their own management” (Watson, 1980). An example of this view is seen in, McGregor’s (1960) ‘Theory Y,’ which presents the view that some employees will use self-direction and self-control to achieve goals to which they are committed. It also notes that commitment to objectives is a partially determined by the rewards associated with achieving these objectives. Further, the Neo-Human Relations school argues that most people learn, under proper conditions, to seek responsibility and that the ability to exercise creativity is widely distributed in the population but under modern industrial conditions, this intellectual potential (and responsibility seeking) is not fully utilised.

In the 1950s, the concepts of motivation were developed. With the aim of identifying factors associated with motivation, numerous new models of work motivation emerged, which collectively have been referred to as content theories (Steers and Shapiro, 2004). The theories developed in this era are McClelland’s theory of needs and Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. While Maslow and McClelland concentrated on the role of individual differences in motivation, Herzberg’s hygiene theory investigated how work activities and the nature of a job can influence motivation and performance. Subsequently, Oldham and Hackman extended the research to job design, motivation and job performance, while others focus on work motivation based on task-based intrinsic and extrinsic factors (Steers and Shapiro, 2004). Section 2.3 discusses two key theories from the early examination of motivation, while Section 2.4 focuses on new theories of motivation.

2.3 Early Theories of Motivation: Maslow, McClelland, and Herzberg
Early debates in psychology in terms of whether motivation comes from an internal driving force (called either drives or needs) or from consciously striving towards external goals have been replaced by newer ideas. By the 1960s, the earlier deterministic models of individual motivation were replaced by ideas presented by researchers who though that individuals actively choose which goals to achieve. Based on these changes Rokeach (1968, p. 168) noted that an individual was now “seen to be not only a rationalising but also a rational creature – curious, exploratory, and receptive to new ideas.”
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy
Maslow (1954) published his ‘hierarchy of motives’ theory that introduced the notion of individual choice and preference within Murray’s essentially deterministic framework. Murray had identified twenty distinctive needs that he thought compelled people to act so as to reduce the tension caused by the unsatisfied need. Murray also distinguished between physiological needs (which he called viscerogenic needs) and affective or cognitive needs (which he called psychogenic needs).

In building on Murray’s framework, Maslow also extended Murray’s viscerogenic-psychogenic dichotomy into a five-step model that he argued reflects different levels and types of psychological needs. Maslow’s Theory claims that human needs are ordered in a hierarchy or pyramid: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualisation needs (Maslow, 1954). This five-step model has been extensively used in the business and management literature. Maslow saw these different types of needs as being arranged in an ascendant succession, with lower-level stages always being dominant and needing satisfaction before the next level becomes a strong motivator. Therefore, lower order need have to at least partly satisfied before a higher order need become important. Additionally, he argues that the only motivating need is one that is unfulfilled. Overall, Maslow describes a process in which individuals move from having to satisfy their primary needs onto increasingly complex secondary needs until they reach a stage of having to address issues of self-awareness or self-actualization.

In terms of motivating factors, at the lower end, the company can use extrinsic motivation, as evidenced by their great reward power. With extrinsic motivation, it means that workers are motivated by tangible rewards such as high pay. Even though there is not a lot of evidence from empirical studies proving that people actually pass sequentially from one level to another, the idea that there are different levels or broad types of motives and needs appears to be a reasonable one.

McClelland’s Three Motives
McClelland et al. (1953) suggested that employees are driven by three motives: the needs for achievement, power, and affiliation. Primary among these is the need for achievement, which McClelland (1961) describes as “a desire to do well for the sake of inner feeling of personal accomplishment.” McClelland was the pioneer in researching this area and showed that individuals with a high need for achievement had to have more achievement satisfaction. Second, McClelland (1961) saw power motivation as the crucial element in understanding and predicting managerial success, although these power needs have to be presented within an appropriate motivational context to get the desired result.

The revised theory states that power motivation may be manifested in behaviour in a variety of ways and that different individuals develop different characteristic modes of expression, one of which is managing. It is important to note that affiliation motivation, which in earlier formulations had received relatively little attention insofar as theoretical statements involving the field of organizational behaviour were concerned, now assumes a significant role. This is because, in the revised theory, it is argued that strong affiliation motivation interferes with and undermines effective managerial performance and so the consequences for managerial effectiveness would be negative if affiliative needs are too strong.

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory is also called the two-factor theory because of the dual nature of its approach to identifying the sources of job satisfaction, and eventually job motivation (Miner, 2007). From his research Herzberg created a list of factors that contribute to satisfaction at work, which he called motivation factors, as well as an entirely separate list of factors that contribute to dissatisfaction, which he called hygiene factors. In this theory, Herzberg et al. (1959) argued that a set of intrinsic factors motivate behaviour, including responsibility, advancement, achievement, the work itself, and recognition. On the other hand, he argued that extrinsic factors de-motivate workers, including salaries, company policies, relations with co-worker, and quality of supervision. Overall, the main thrust of his argument is that the factors that cause satisfaction are not the same things that cause dissatisfaction. For example, the terms of assessment and promotion, the perceived fairness of the decision making process is crucial for commitment and therefore managers should clearly communicate clearly how decisions are made and why some people and not others did get promotions (Herzberg, 1987). Herzberg’s extrinsic (hygiene) factors are similar to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs and include factors such as supervision, working conditions, and salary. On the other hand, Herzberg’s intrinsic factors are similar to Maslow’s higher order needs and include factors such as recognition, achievement, and the work itself.

Overall, Herzberg argued that there are a set of features that should be built into jobs to make them satisfying and motivating. This is because an organisation that removes the causes of dissatisfaction (hygiene factors, which are not intrinsic to the content of the work itself) would not lead to job satisfaction, it would only reduce job dissatisfaction (Herzberg, 1987). On the other hand, individuals can only be satisfied and motivated if motivation factors are used. Thus, based on this he argues that staff motivation can be increased by introducing basic changes in the nature of an employee’s job. This ‘job enrichment’ can be achieved by redesigning jobs to allow for increased challenge and responsibility, opportunities for advancement, and personal growth, and recognition.

It is important to note that Herzberg et al. (1959) argue that if the basic factors are missing (hygiene factors), such as appropriate levels of financial compensation, workers will be dissatisfied irrespective of whether other factors are present. For this reason, some people have put emphasis on financial incentives. Hicks and Adams (2003) argue that one way to motivate staff within an organisation is through the use of incentives. Incentives, they argue are a means to favour certain behaviours in order to reach defined objectives and are important because they can influence key determinants of performance and can encourage people to stay on a job. Whilst this argument may be true, incentives are in various forms and different people prefer different forms of incentives. Therefore, though an organisation may offer good incentive schemes such as payment of tuition fees for external courses, those staff who are no longer interested in further education may not find these as good incentives and may not be motivated to work.

2.5 Integrated Model of Work Motivation
The theory foundation for this study will be based on the integrated model of work motivation formulated by Locke and Latham. The model presented in Figure 2.1 below illustrates how an individual’s values and personality can be affected by his needs, which affect his choice of goals, satisfaction or dissatisfaction while determining his actions.

The integrated model of work motivation formulated by Locke and Latham (2004) is a good way of discussing motivation theory in a comprehensive way. The first item in this integrated model is ‘needs’ and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is important here and includes growth needs (self-actualization and esteem needs) and deficiency needs (psychological, safety, social needs) (Lindner, 1998) that drive employees. However, it is possible for an employee to be satisfied with his need, but not be adequately motivated (Shiply & Kiely, 1998) and so a study of motivation needed to go further than needs. The other aspects of the model are discussed briefly below.

Personality Theory
The next aspect in the model is the values and personality, which arise as a result of ‘needs’ (Locke and Latham, 2004). It was also important to examine personality because to a large extent, the theories of personality are motivation theories (Spector, 2000). Stagner, a personality trait theorist, suggested that in a bid to understand personality, motivation must first be understood (Pervin, 1993). Although, motivation is an individual characteristic, it springs from within an individual’s personality and environmental conditions. An employee’s personality trait is pertinent to how they perform their job. This is borne out by empirical research, which indicates that there exist a continuous and resilient relationship between personality characteristics and performance motivation (Judge and Ilies, 2002; Landy and Conte, 2007).
Goal Choice (Vroom’s VIE Theory)
According to the Integrated Model of Work Motivation, an individual’s values and personality contribute to the choice of goal, which is influenced by incentives and self-efficacy. This is examined using Vroom’s expectancy theory, which explains how rewards initiate behaviour by concentrating on the state of one’s internal perception, which affects motivation (Spector, 2000). The theory assumes that an individual will be highly motivated when he or she believes that their behaviour will cause a desired reward or outcome. Likewise, the individual will not be motivated to work if he or she does not believe that his or her behaviour will amount to the desired outcomes or rewards. Also, the individual will not be motivated to work if he or she does not want the rewards or outcomes (Spector, 2000).

An individual’s motivation is determined by three main factors:
1. Valence, which refers to the measure of value of a job’s outcome;
2. Expectancy, which is one’s belief about the prospect of a particular outcome; and
3. Instrumentality, which refers to the probability belief linking one outcome to another (Ramlall, 2004).

This theory is highly coherent because it is logical to believe that employees will not be motivated by things that they do not need. Also, the theory works in union with the other motivational theories (Drafke and Kossen, 2002).

Incentives are the fourth important element in the model. Financial rewards are important but it does not necessarily satisfy all the needs of an employee (Drafke & Kossen, 2002). Rewards can also be internal, arising as a result of attaining a level of excellence and success, a sense of accomplishment or making progress towards a goal. Indeed, Herzberg argues that motivation comes from work itself and that rewards simply satisfy or dissatisfy employees but do not lead to real motivation (Locke and Latham, 2004).

Still, the reward system in an organisation needs to be examined because lack of proper rewards is a factor affecting dissatisfaction, which would reduce satisfaction. To ensure a reward programme that is fair and measurable, managers must create and maintain a distinct balance between an employees’ basic salary, benefits and other external rewards. When employees are motivated, they will be inclined to perform highly and yield a positive outcome that fulfils the organisation’s goals (Bowen, 2000). Conversely, internal rewards can arise as a result of attaining a level of excellence and success, a sense of accomplishment or making progress towards a goal. Higher satisfaction is experienced when the success is attributed to the individual rather than to external factors. Various researches on how rewards affect employee performance has been executed, an example is Vroom’s expectancy theory (Thorpe and Horman, 2000).

Goal-Setting Theory
The fifth element was goal-setting theory, which posits that one’s behaviour is motivated by their intentions, goals and objectives (Locke and Latham, 1990; Spector, 2000). Goal-setting theory is probably the theory of motivation that has been most useful to psychologists and organisations (Spector, 2000). In this context feedback is important since it is difficult for an employees’ behaviour to be directed by goals without receiving feedback on how well they are heading towards attaining the set goals (Robbins, 2000).

Vroom’s expectancy theory also highlights the importance of goal setting in motivating employees. Research has proven that a person is highly motivated to achieve a goal with ample commitment. This could be because one’s self-esteem and sense of self-worth are involved in achieving the goal. However, when a goal is too complicated, it could diminish the employees’ motivation, as there will be a low possibility of attaining the goal (Lawler, 2003). However, the more difficult the goal, the greater the sense of achievement and accomplishment the employee feels when the goal is finally achieved. Hence, even if the probability of accomplishing a difficult goal is low, employees might tend to be more motivated in achieving these goals than the easier ones (Lawler, 2003).

Self-Efficacy and Social-Cognitive Theory
The sixth element is based on self-efficacy and social-cognitive theory. As regards the effect of motivation on task performance, Bandhura’s concept of self-efficacy has been discovered as the strongest of all theories (Locke and Latham, 2004). Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s ability or the likelihood that one will be able to perform a difficult task successfully. This term is becoming important in most modern theories of work motivation (Landy and Conte, 2007). Researchers have found that high expectancy and self-efficacy play an imperative part in spurring goal commitment and thus yielding high performance (Locke & Latham, 1990).

According to Bandura (Landy and Conte, 2007), people arrange goals from the most urgent to the most distant. This is because urgent goals establishes a sense of satisfaction, intensifies feelings of efficacy and helps to retain interest and commitment in the given task. Also, urgent goals aid the development towards distant goals. The level of an individual’s satisfaction and the feeling of efficacy will increase if progress towards his or her goals is made. This can motivate the individual to set higher goals (Landy and Conte, 2007).

Goal Moderators
The seventh element is goal moderators, which boost the impacts of goals on motivation, including ability, commitment, feedback, and task complexity (Locke & Latham, 2004). They are explained below.
• Ability: Accomplishing a set goal requires one’s capability. According to goal-setting studies, has proven that one’s performance in achieving a goal can be limited by he’s ability. Also, goal setting is highly effective on people with greater ability than on people with lower ability (Locke and Latham, 2004).
• Commitment: As an individual’s goal becomes more challenging, commitment tends to decline, which in turn decreases performance. Challenging goals initiates high performance only if the individual commits to them. There are at least four factors that impinge on goal commitment. They include; peer influence, legitimate power or authority, rewards or incentives, individual’s expectancy (Meyer et al, 2004)
• Feedback: There is evidence that goal setting and feedback lead to improved performance; as goal setting without the presence of feedback is ineffective (Locke and Latham, 1990). One’s actions are directed by goals while the progress of those actions are monitored by feedback. Performance is enhanced when one works towards achieving a goal and receives feedback that there is a slow progress In contrast; performance is not enhanced when an individual receives feedback that he is progressive in attaining his goals (Nemeoff, 1979).
• Task Complexity: Task can be defined as a series of actions embarked on in pursuit of a certain aim. It could be done freely or for reward (Campbell, 1988). The successful accomplishment of a task requires a high skill level. A task may be hard to undertake because it involves a lot of effort, skill and experience. Thus even a less difficult task can be hard to undertake if its performance involves a lot of effort. Consequently, task complexity can be defined as a sub-concept of task difficulty (Campbell, 1996).

In conclusion, a specific challenging goal can be best accomplished when the task is simple and the individual involved has the ability, is fully committed to the goal, obtains feedback on progress rate in relation to the goal and has high expectancy to perform the task well (Locke and Latham, 1990).

Goal Mediators
Goal mediators are also important and form the eight element of the model. Locke and Latham (2004) identify are four mediators that enables an individual attain goals: direction of attention, effort, persistence, and task strategies. Goals direct an individual’s attention to the activities identified by the goal, with the aim that he or she will channel less focus on irrelevant activities. Hence, an individual can have a positive performance if he or she pays attention to the task, exerts effort into it and persevere over a period of time (Locke and Latham, 1990). In view of task persistence, if a difficult goal is set and there are no time limits to achieving a goal, the individual will work for a longer period of time or a harder goal than for an easier goal. The individual will also spend more time preparing to perform if the goal requires a high- performance standard than if it requires a low-performance standard (Locke and Latham, 1990).

Performance and Outcome
The expectations of employee’s performance and outcome must be realigned with their perceptions of effort expended. Performance can be defined as the fulfillment of a specific task measure against predetermined standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed while outcome is the end result of a specific task (Khin, 1998). Outcome measures can be viewed as the determination and evaluation of the results of an activity, and their comparison with the anticipated results (Khin, 1998). There are three major types of objective outcome measures in an organisation that can be used to guide performance: quality of production, money and time. Quality of production refers to the amount or worth of a product or service, money refers to profit and or loss made, and time refers to the deadlines for completion of the tasks (Locke and Latham, 1990).

Attribution Theory
According to the integrated model of work motivation, attribution theory should also be considered when studying employees’ performance. This is the tenth element in the model. It also suggests that motivation is a response by the individual to a self-perception of their behaviour (Martin, 1998). Attribution theory is based on people wanting to know the reasons for the actions that they and others take while attributing causes to behaviours they see rather than assuming that these behaviours are random. This permits people to assume some feeling of control over their own behaviours and over situations (Miner, 2005).

Psychologist Fritz Heider first developed the attribution theory. He proposed that people’s actions are dictated by their perceptions and beliefs about what they saw, even if their beliefs about what they perceived were invalid. Heider proposed that what people perceived and believed about what they saw dictated how they would act, even if their beliefs about what they perceived were invalid (Locke and Latham, 2004). In a bid to distinguish types of attribution and appropriate response behaviours, Heider’s proposed theory of attribution was further developed by psychologist Bernard Weiner. He proposed that achievement-motivated individuals attribute their success to themselves, their effort and hard work. While they attribute their failures to their lack of extra effort, they tend to try again if they fail because they believe that they can succeed with greater efforts. In contrast, individuals with a low drive for achievement consider hard work and effort as irrelevant. They attribute their own failures to other factors and view their success as a consequence of luck or the easy nature of the task (Miner, 2005).

Psychologist Harold Kelley provided a final development to attribution theory. He suggested that individuals could establish the validity of their perception by using consistency, distinctiveness and consensus (Locke and Latham, 20004). In this context, consistency refers to the steadiness of a specific exhibited behaviour in comparison to other behaviours of the individual. Also, distinctiveness refers to if the specific exhibited behaviour occurs when performing a particular task in comparison to other general task. Lastly, consensus refers to if the specific exhibited behaviour is unique to the individual or if it has been widespread amongst other individuals (Martin, 1998).
Finally, the study of attributions is essential to management because a managers’ and employees’ judgment and actions may be influenced by perceived causes of behaviour. Managers must frequently observe employee performance and make related judgments. If an employees’ poor performance were attributed to a lack of effort, then the outcome for that employee would probably be negative. Alternatively, if an employees’ poor performance were attributed to a lack of skill, the manager may assign the employee to further training or provide further instructions, which will motivate the employee to perform better. Making an inaccurate judgment about the causes of poor performance can have negative repercussions for the organisation.

Job Characteristics Theory
Job characteristics theory is the eleventh element as an employees’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction depends on the job itself and the organisation. In 1960, a widely accepted hypothesis stipulated that employees get bored and dissatisfied with easy and routine work, while they get motivated by complex and interesting task (Spector, 2000). This theory was developed by Hackman and Oldham based on Herzberg’s hygiene theory. The model establishes the correlation between features of the job or employee and job satisfaction or performance. It also highlights the need to establish the related psychological variables (Thierry and Hicker 1990).

The job characteristics model has five main elements: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and task feedback (Fincham & Rhodes, 2005). These elements are aspects of jobs that can be changed or enhanced to have positive motivational impact on the employees (Spector, 2000). The model also shows consistent validity with regards to job satisfaction and the correlation between the core job dimensions and measures of satisfaction (Spector, 2000).

Organisational Commitment
Job satisfaction and organisational commitment are strongly correlated. Supporting evidence appears in a study by Meyer et al (cited in Spector, 2000, p.217) that organisational commitment can be based on the following components; affective, continuance, and normative commitment. Affective commitment refers to the decision of an employee to stay with an organisation due to emotional attachment. Like wise, continuance commitment refers to the desire of an employee to stay within an organisation due to salary or unavailability to find another job. Lastly, normative commitment refers to the desire of an employee to remain with an organisation due to felt gratitude
People with low commitment are more likely to leave their job than those with high commitment (Spector, 2000).

Distributive and Procedural Theory (Equity Theory)
The final element is based on distributional and procedural equity. An employees’ level of satisfaction is also influenced by an organisation’s policies and procedure (Dreher and Dougherty, 2002; DuBrin, 2000). In terms of discipline, employees and mangers are bestowed with the responsibility for solving performance problems (Dreher and Dougherty, 2002). This may imply that sometimes, employees need to be disciplined in some certain ways. It is pertinent for every organisation to build a structure of justice in which they can exercise rules and procedures. Also, it is expected that the manager to adopt harsh discipline in certain situations.
Employees will develop a feeling of fairness in treatment if rewards and punishments are applied correctly. The treatment of other colleagues is the main source of this feeling. It is on this basis that the equity approach to motivation is formulated. This is the basis for the equity approach to motivation (Aldag and Kuuzuhara, 2002). The equity theory of work motivation emanates from the balance theories of social psychological theory. Balance theories assume that individuals have a set of convictions in which they strive to maintain a balance. Imbalance is a source of motivation to attain balance (Edwards, 1999).

Adam’s equity theory explains how people view and evaluate a social exchange relationship in an organisation. The theory stipulates that people are motivated to achieve a condition of equity or fairness in dealing with the people in an organisation (Spector, 2000). The major components of the social exchange relationship in the equity theory are input and outcome. The outcome from the job includes wages, recognition, intrinsic rewards, promotion and so forth. While the inputs include: effort, time, experience, skills and loyalty (Landy and Conte, 2007). He also suggests that people tend to view their outcomes and inputs as a ratio. Furthermore, they compare this ratio with those of other employees. When the ratio of one employee is equal to that of other employees, a state of equity is achieved and motivation is fostered (Minner, 2005). Although, when the employees realize an inequality in the ratio relative to others, tension is created. This tension could also foster motivation and consequently breed anger when employees are under-rewarded (Ramlall, 2004). Thus Adam’s equity theory suggests that organisations develop an explicit reward system that depicts fairness and equity. Also the reward system should be in proportion to employees’ view on their value (Robbins, 2003).

2.5 Newer Theories of Motivation
The integrated model of work motivation as posited by Locke and Latham possess some shortcomings. They are explained below:
• The model concentrates on conscious motivation and ignores the sub-conscious motivation.
• The factors significant to performance and outcome; ability, knowledge and skills were not shown in the model.
• Recursive-effect arrows are not shown in the model, except the arrow shown between self- efficacy and performance. The model is not dynamic but static. In reality, almost any output can become an input.
• Some arrows are omitted to limit cognitive-perceptual overload. For example, there is no indication that personality can affect job satisfaction, while the relationship between perceived justice and goal commitment is omitted.
• Apart from the goal theories, several theories not fully elaborated. For example, there are sub-theories and complexities involved in procedural justice.

Apart from the integrated model of work motivation explained earlier, newer scholars have come up with new ideas of motivational factors that could influence the performance of employees. This section discusses high performance work systems and Lindner’s System of Employee.

High Performance Work Systems
In more recent times, researchers have put all these ideas about making work more motivating together and theorised what a ‘high performance work system’ would look like. It is argued that high performance work systems would involve
…recruitment practices which aim to attract and select highly committed and flexible people, internal labour markets which reward commitment and training with promotion and job security, and methods of direct communication and team-working (Wood and de Menezes, 1998, p. 488).

According to Pfeffer (1998) there are seven practices used by successful organisations. The first practice is employment security. According to Pfeffer, employment security is a crucial practice that underpins the other six high-commitment HR practices. This is mainly because it would appear to be unrealistic to ask employees to be committed and hardworking if there is no expectation of security on employees’ part. The second practice is selective recruitment. Recruitment is argued to be an important way of realising ‘human capital advantage,’ and the selective element is seen by firms that hire exceptional individuals so as to “captur[e] a stock of exceptional human talent” (Boxall, 1996, p. 66-7), which would be a source of competitive advantage. The third practice is training. According to Marchington and Wilkinson (2005), extensive training, learning, and development are the most crucial elements of high commitment HRM, particularly because it is the way that organisations can make sure that they outstanding employees stay at the forefront of their fields.

The fourth practice is team working. This element has become ubiquitous in the business and management literature for a range of reasons and team working has now been identified by most employers as a very important in building the organisation. The fifth practice identified by Pfeffer (1998) is high compensation based on organisational performance. That is, organisations can only expect employees to be committed to the organisation if they provide employees with (1) above average compensation and (2) performance-related reward, which would both demonstrate to employees that those that make superior contributions will be rewarded accordingly.

The sixth practice is the reduction of status differentials, such as shared canteens. This is an important practice because it shows that all employees are valuable and thus they deserve to be treated in a similarly manner as more senior staff. The seventh practice highlighted by Pfeffer (1998) is information sharing and employee involvement. He argues that this is important because open communication about financial performance, strategy, and operational measures sends employees the message that they are trusted. Additionally, the information on which employees base their suggestions and on which they work has to be good.

Overall, it can be argued that this theory of high-performance work systems incorporates both motivating and de-motivating factors and provides managers with a template as to how to deal with this together. While it does not specifically talk about how the job itself is to be designed, it does seem that workers in such a system would be given increased challenge and responsibility, as well as opportunities for advancing in the organisation, personal growth, and organisational recognition, all things that Herzberg argued are needed to motivate workers and make them perform at a high level.

Lindner’s System of Employee
According to Lindner (1998) it is important to keep the employees motivated to aid a company’s survival. Due to the fact that no two individuals are equally alike and the needs of employees changes constantly over time, motivating employees is known to be one of the most complex task for managers (Lindner, 1998).
Using a descriptive survey method, supporting evidence appears in a study by Lindner (1998) to examine the importance of certain motivational factors. The target group was asked to rank the factors in a descending order: from the most motivating to the least motivating. Thus, the respondents ranked the motivational factors in the following order; interesting work, good wages, appreciation of work well done, job security, good working conditions, personal loyalty to employees, tactful discipline, sympathetic help with personal problems, promotion and growth, feeling of been in on things. All these factors are explained below.
• Interesting work: Employees could be motivated through interesting work. Work can be interesting when jobs are well structured and specific goals are properly stipulated (Sorita et al, 2005).
• Good wages: In a bid to enhance motivation and performance, organisations link incentives to better performance. Financial incentives have always been a vital motivator. However, money is not the only motivator, as it cannot always determine employees’ productivity. Hence, financial incentives could be viewed as a short-term satisfier (Drafke and Kossen, 2002).
• Appreciation of work well done: This can be achieved by giving employees public recognition, feedback, promotion, and reward. Employees could view the need for appreciation for a job well done more important than the need for financial incentives (Thorpe andHoman, 2000).
• Job security: Companies usually lay off employees in a bid to restructure the organisation, save cost and be competitive. Employees can be more motivated if given a certain level of job security (Sharma, 2006).
• Good working conditions: Employees could be motivated bygood working conditions such as flexible working hours, and so forth flexible and reasonable (Sorita et al, 2005).
• Personal loyalty to employees: The instability of employment depicts a change in employers’ views towards the employment relationship. Enhancing employee motivation can be done through improving the employee-employer relationship. Sharing information and celebrating successes, with employees to foster a sense of ownership, can show loyalty to employees (Drafte and Cossen, 2002).
• Tactful discipline: It is important that every organisation possess a structure of justice where rules, regulations and discipline can be exercised. However in applying discipline, managers should be just an affair and thus create (Dreher and Doughrty, 2002).
• Sympathetic help with personal problems: Employees can be motivated when employers show interest in their welfare. It is essential for managers to ascertain employees; needs in order to determine what motivates them. Managers get their work done through employees. If managers do not know what employees need, they may also not know what motivates them (Drafte and Cossen, 2002).
• Promotions and growth in the company: Training and development in an organisation helps to foster growth in a company, which is beneficial to employees, and the company at large. Both the employees and the company benefit, not just in the present, but also in the future (Sorita et al, 2005).
• Feeling of being in on things: Employees develop a sense of belonging when involved in decision making and empowerment,It Empowering employees is so vital because a company needs its employees’ skill, experience, knowledge, and commitment to the organisation. Experience and skills and their commitment to the company (Johnson and Redmond, 1998).

From the research carried out by Lindner (1998), he concluded that the findings imply that employees are motivated by different factors according to the context in which they work. Also a high number of employees ranked interesting work as the most important motivational factor, while feeling of being in o things was ranked the lowest motivational factor. These motivational factors will form the basis for data collected in this research.

2.7 Chapter Summary
This chapter discussed the concept of motivation, the Integrated Model of Work Motivation and recent theories of motivation. The theoretical foundation of this research was the integrated model of work motivation formulated by Locke and Latham (2004) and presented in Figure 2.1 (p. 16). During the 1930s and 1940s, the examination of human motivation fostered immense interest amongst psychologists and this led the materialisation of a multiplicity of theories, including the cognitive formulations and the need-based conceptualisations (Swezey, 1994). Subsequently, in the 1950s and 1960s, psychologists started focusing on the role of motivation at the workplace, particularly in the context of job performance and job satisfaction. Such efforts resulted in an array of goal-setting, instrumentality-based (cf. Porter and Lawler, 1968; Vroom, 1964), and equity-based orientations (Swezey, 1994).
Various theories were used to explain in details. It is important for managers to recall that motivational factors are all linked and affect one another. Also they should understand that employees are different and are motivated by different things, hence the need to determine what motivates each employee to deliver better performance and outcome.
3.1 Introduction
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the methodological approaches and procedures adopted in achieving the aim and objectives of the study. It also discusses the problems associated with the collection of data, the limitation and scope of the study.

3.2 Research Design
According to Creswell (2009), a research methodology provides the procedural rules for the assessment of research claims and the validation of the knowledge gathered, while research design serves as the research blueprint. Whiteley (2002) further defined a research methodology as an established framework for the collection and assessment of existent knowledge for the purpose of finding, and validating new knowledge. The resources that the research utilizes must fulfil explicit purposes and withstand critical scrutiny. A constructive research methodology is very pertinent as it identifies the necessary tools and strategies that will be adopted. In the context of research methodology, each research creates a set of distinctive questions and objectives. Hence, in a bid to articulate a means by which the research objectives can be satisfied, the research design serves as a paradigm to employ the necessary tools and strategies for a thorough analysis of collected data (Creswell, 2009).

3.3 Research Approach
It is important to critically select a research approach in carrying out a research study. The research approach is important as it informs the research design and provides a basis for a critical consideration of how each of the various approaches may contribute meaningfully to, or limits the study (Locke et al, 2009). As explained by Locke et al (2009), the research approach comprises of the quantitative versus the qualitative and the deductive versus the inductive approach. Each of these perspectives is viewed as opposites but it is important that a researcher be open to a variety of approaches as required by the subject study (Oyebanji, 2002).

According to Locke et al (2009), the deductive approach can be defined as a test of theories and conceptual frameworks, which is perceived and hence formulates hypothesis on that basis. Conversely, the inductive approach emanates from the empirical data and proceeds to develop conceptual frameworks in accordance with the collected data. However, this research study will adopt the deductive approach, since it utilises a wide range of existing theories and attempts to find answers from existing research and findings about motivation and employees performances.

3.4.2 The Qualitative versus the Quantitative Approach
Creswell (2009) asserts that the quantitative approach is structured in a way to guarantee the reliability and validity of the research study. To fulfil the purpose of a research study, this approach attempts to produce a generalized data hence it adopts a random and un-biased selection of respondents.
The objective of the quantitative approach is to test the hypothesis that is generated from the research. In view of that, questionnaires are leading tools for the quantitative approach; hence concepts are in the form of distinct variables. Also, measures are created systematically before data collection; these data are in the form of numbers from specific measurements. However, in this approach, theories are largely casual and can be deductive. The procedures in carrying out this approach are standard and replicable. Lastly, analysis of data is executed by using statistical tools such as tables and charts (Creswell, 2009).

Conversely, the objective of the qualitative approach is to discover and review meanings from the data. Interviews, observations and focus groups form the tools for this approach; hence, concepts are in the form of themes and categorizations (Creswell, 2009). Also, measures are quite specific to the individual researcher and data collected are in form of words from observations and transcripts. However, quantification is still used in qualitative research while theories are often inductive. The procedures in caring out this approach are precise and it is often difficult to replicate. Lastly, collected data are analyzed by extracting themes from evidences and organising data to present a logical picture. Thus hypothesis can then be generated (Creswell, 2009).

According to Punch (2002), it is suggested that in order to fully maximize the value of a research, the two approaches be exploited. Hence, this research study adopted both approaches. This is because, they can compliment each other by bringing width and depth into the research; the quantitative approach provides quantifiable data and these data can be reduced into simple statistical representations of factors that influence and motivate employees’ performance. Also, the qualitative approach was adopted as it allows for a detailed examination of transcripts gathered from the interviews.

3.4 Research Strategy
According to Kumar (2005), there are three research strategies. They include; the experimental, the survey and the case study strategies. Depending on the requirements of the research itself and the nature of the study, one or all of these strategies may be selected. Usually, social sciences adopt the survey and the case study strategies while the scientific researches adopt the experimental strategy. This research study shall adopt the survey strategy as it gathers data and allows for the explanation of facts through theory. It also provides an expansion of knowledge through the clarification of the relation between facts and theory. Also, this strategy is well suited for the comparison of two entities.

According to Kumar (2005), the concept of data collection is concerned with data gathering. The authenticity of any research finding depends on the reliability and validity of data collection. However, Creswell (2009) suggests that it is pertinent for a researcher to first identify the type and nature of the required data and then select a type of collection methods that is best suited to the collection of the identified data types. In order to adequately obtain necessary information needed for this research, data were gotten from primary and secondary sources. Secondary data are in the form of finished products as they have already been handled in a statistical form. Secondary data are information obtained from published or unpublished articles, which can be obtained from relevant publications by individuals or institutions (Kumar, 2005). To develop a strong theoretical background for this research study, several of secondary data were gathered from search engines, journal articles, Internet, textbooks and publications. From a review of literature, a survey questionnaire was developed to collect data for the study. Likewise, primary data are in the form of raw materials to which statistical methods are applied for the purpose of analysis and interpretations. They are gathered through direct observation, questionnaires and interview (Kumar, 2005). For the purpose of this study, the use of questionnaires and interviews was adopted.

Quantitative Approach: Sampling Technique
When selecting a sample for a quantitative survey, a sampling technique must be considered. Sampling technique generally describes a particular means of drawing samples from a given population. These techniques are adopted to provide a basis for generalization about a population through a sample taken from it (Locke et al, 2009). The most common types of sampling techniques are: random, systematic, stratified and cluster sampling. However, the technique used for this research is random sampling. Random sampling is a method through which samples are drawn from a comprehensive list of population elements without any pre-specified order capable of destroying the balance and opportunity of including every element in the population (Creswell, 2009). The concept of random sampling was employed so as to get a good representation that will cut across the selected population. All the names of the subjects were written on pieces of papers shuffled and were picked continuously until the required sample size was gotten.

Sample Size
For the purpose of this study, a descriptive survey method was employed. The target population of this study consists of managers and employees in the Nigeria’s banking industry. The population size of this study is twenty-five which comprises of all the consolidated banks in Nigeria.

Oyebanji (2002) defined sample size as the number of sampling units selected from the study population (ibid). The sample size for this research is one hundred and five; which is made up of twenty employees and one manager from each of the five banks. Due to the busy schedule of bank managers and employees, five banks were chosen for this research. The sample sizes were also chosen using random sampling. In all, the total numbers of respondents were chosen in order to minimize the margin of errors and to permit in-depth handling and analysis as appropriate.

Questionnaire Design
According to Oyebanji (2002), a questionnaire is a survey instrument used to gather information or data from primary source thus it contains a set of structured questions pertinent to proffering solution(s) to the problems(s) under the study. There are two main reasons for administering questionnaires. It can be done to estimate the characteristics of a population. While the other reason, is for testing hypothesis (Whiteley, 2002). However, for the purpose of this research study, the questionnaire is administered to measure and ascertain the motivational factors and characteristics that influence employees in Nigeria’s banking industry.

Choosing the investigating factors for a research is of great importance for the outcome of that study. In considering the factors to adopt for this study, previous researches were examined. The motivational factors selected in this study are from a number of previous studies, which were thoroughly examined. This enabled this research study to accommodate a broader view of the existing literature. Therefore it is necessary at this point to justify choices for adopting some factors for this thesis and not others. Firstly, in selecting an appropriate case study for this research, various industries and multinational companies within Nigeria were considered. Thereafter the banking industry was chosen, as it is one of the fastest growing industries and plays a vital role in the country’s economy. Also, fewer literatures on the impact of motivation on employee’s performance in Nigeria’s banking industry have been written. Secondly, the selection of the twelve factors in this thesis was based on the number of times each factor must have been used by at least more than one previous research thus ensuring the validity of the result and analysis of this research study.

The questions in a survey can be grouped into two distinctive parts: open-ended closed-ended and questions. Open-ended questions require the respondents are expected to answer in their own words while closed-ended questions require the respondents to choose answers from a set of alternatives (Creswell, 2009). However, in this study, closed-ended questions are used because the alternative answers are set in a way that can easily be quantified and measured.

The questionnaire for this study is designed with a Likert rating scale. Likert rating scales are the most commonly used form of scaling method. They present the respondents with a set of statements and the respondents are required to indicate if they strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, or strongly disagree (Whiteley, 2002). The respondents were asked to respond according to their view on the statements relating to motivational factors and the impact of these factors on their job performance.
Components of the Questionnaire
The package delivered to responders contained three items each: one covering letter, one questionnaire and reply envelope. The covering letter explained the purpose of the survey and politely asked the responder to return the completed questionnaire to the respective heads of departments within two weeks. The responders were also guaranteed anonymity and confidentiality. The structure of the questionnaire consists of three sections. The first section comprises of demographic details about the respondents. This includes their gender, marital status, the department the respondent works in, the number of years the respondent has been working for the organisation, educational level, and current position in the organisation. The second question encompasses statements relating to their views on general and managerial issues in the organisation. The last section was pertaining to motivational factors, which is based on the motivational factors in the literature study by Lindner, as discussed in chapter two of this thesis. The questions are set to ascertain the effectiveness of these factors on their job performance and also to rank the factors according to how they influence their performance. For a thorough presentation of the questionnaire, see appendix A attached

A pilot test is a trial run with a similar group of respondents; it is used to find the problems in the design of a questionnaire (Locke et al, 2009). The questionnaires for this research study were pilot tested with five similarly situated employees within the bank industry. Subsequently, twenty questionnaires and an envelope were hand delivered to respective heads of departments of the five banks chosen.

Data Collection
In all, one hundred (100) questionnaires were administered to the members of staff in all the banks. The questionnaires were filled out by participants, returned to respective heads of departments and were collected. A total of ninety were returned, out of which twelve were discarded because they were not answered correctly. Hence, out of the total number of questionnaires administered to employees, seventy-eight was used which denotes a participatory rate of seventy-eight percent. Therefore, It is considered that seventy-eight percent response rate is adequate for this thesis.

Techniques for Data Analysis
Data analysis is an exercise embarked upon with a view to describing, classifying, and ascertaining the relationship Data processing commences with the editing and coding of the data (Kumar, 2005). Therefore once the acceptability of the questionnaires collected was ascertained, the questionnaires were then coded with numbers assigned to each question. After data were collected on all the factors, the excel computer programme was used to process and present the results. The collective rank order was determined by entering the ranking given to each of the twelve factors in the survey questionnaire (see appendix B attached). After entering the rankings given to each factor by each respondent, the sum of all the rankings for that factor was totalled. The factor with the least or lowest sum, was ranked number five or the last factor while the factor with the highest sum was ranked number one or first. This system of data analysis was found to be the most simple and more appropriate as different participants gave different ranking for the same factor.
In order to interpret the analyzed data, this research employed some descriptive statistical tools: they statistical tools include tables, histograms, percentages and frequencies. While deductions are drawn from each question analyzed to explain the responses of the respondents.

3.5 Qualitative Approach
Having used the quantitative approach, the reason for adopting the qualitative approach is to further identify from the managers point of view, which factors influence the performance of employees and to ascertain the impact of these factors on employees’ performance. Also, it is evident that a qualitative approach produces findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other means of quantification.

With the qualitative research, two main formats are available for gathering new data from sampled populations. They include focus groups and individual in-depth interviewing. Both have scope for applying a variety of probing or elicitation techniques (Creswell, 2009). The format chosen for this research was the in-depth interview. The reason for this choice was to minimize the influence participants in a group setting could have on each other. Also, the research required at least twenty minutes from each respondent, in focus groups of about five participants it was not likely that twenty minutes would be obtained from each of the five respondents since this would extend the duration of the group unreasonably.

Qualitative Sampling
In selecting a sample for a qualitative research, sample size is not important; instead, there should be an observable pattern in the data. However, the sample should be large enough to ensure credibility and small enough to create adequate in-depth analysis. For this research study, the managers of the five banks chosen constitute the sample size for the in-depth interview.

Pilot Test of the Interview
The interview questions were open-ended and were designed in a semi-structured in-depth form. Once the draft questions for the interview had been prepared and reviewed, a pilot study was carried out. The main purpose was to ensure that the interview questions would be effective in eliciting appropriate responses from prospective interviewees. Also, to identify practical problems such as: ambiguous instructions or terminologies. The secondary purpose was to provide some experience at administering a qualitative interview so interviews could be carried out more effectively.

Interview Protocols
The prospective interviewees were managers chosen from the sample size. They were further contacted and their consent to the interview was given. Subsequently, an introductory letter and seven intended questions for the interview were delivered to the five respective bank managers. This was done to enable the managers select a convenient time and prepare adequately for the interview. The structure of the interview questions was based on managerial activities with emphasis on motivational strategies used by the respective organisations.

As stated earlier, five managers from each of the selected banks comprised of four senior managers and one general manager. The interviewees consented to the interview upon a condition of confidentiality. They also stated that the names of their organisations and specific policies and strategies be kept confidential, these conditions were agreed upon.

The interviews took place at the respective offices of the interviewees with the duration of twenty minutes. The major protocols in order of action were: Pre- interview conversation, where an introduction was made and the purpose of the interview as specified in the introductory letter in (see appendix C attached) was explained to the respondent. Next, the interview was commenced and completed, after thanking the respondent and stopping the tape-recorder, the respondents were reminded that they could request for transcribed copies of the interview.

Data Analysis
Although the transcribing process was done personally and was time consuming, it provided a basis for an in-depth understanding of the subject matter. Additionally, it aided in detecting underlying meanings, which had been omitted during the interviews and helped in recollecting some of the issues, and comments that interviewees made but which had been forgotten.

According to Creswell (2009), following transcription, in order to facilitate analysis of data, interviews must be coded. Hence, coding contributes to the quality of the qualitative data analysis by ensuring its’ accuracy and relevancy. Furthermore, Locke et al, (2009) suggest that coding be guided by the research questions and research’s conceptual framework. This will ensure the researcher identify and define key terms, clarify accurately the subject matter. Hence, on the basis of the conceptual framework of this research study and the amassing of key terms, the interview transcripts were coded. Foremost, a list of start codes was developed from the conceptual framework of the research. Subsequently, using the preset list of questions, codes were developed from each of the questions.

According to the guidelines provided by Creswell (2009), in coding the interviews, two levels of coding were utilized. First, the transcripts were reviewed thoroughly, and reactions to the subject matter were stated with marginal remarks. As a result of this, descriptive codes were produced to enable categorization and summarization of the remarks. This first level of coding aided in summarizing the segments of data. Afterwards, the second level of coding referred to as pattern coding by Creswell (2009) ensued. Pattern coding was used to analyze the data gotten from the first level of coding to enable their grouping into thematic sets. Hence, the coding process provided a thorough analysis of interview transcripts and provided meaningful data.

3.6 Credibility and Quality of Research Findings
Data collected is used to inform the research findings. If the data is not verifiable, the implication is that the findings are potentially suspected to be incorrect. Hence, it is important that the researcher validates his or her findings (Whiteley, 2002).

According to Whiteley (2002), a research study is reliable if the research adopts a given procedure and arrives at a conclusion that will be applicable in any given situation. The primary objective should be that if a later investigation followed exactly the same procedures as described by an earlier investigator and conducted the same study all over again; this later investigator should be able to arrive at a similar or comparable findings. However, due to the varying nature of human beings, a hundred percent reliability cannot be considered for this study, as individual perceptions are central in this study. Hence, future investigations may not produce exactly the same results as reported in this research.

Nonetheless, it is believed that the results of this study could be regarded as highly reliable, as respondents were carefully selected, and it was ensured that they were willing to participate in the study. Upon retrieval of the questionnaire, there was a thorough check to ensure that there were no flaws and that the responses given by respondents had a minimum level of bias (Punch, 2000). In a bid to further ensure the reliability of this study, interviews were scheduled at the respondent’s convenience and participants were given several days to answer the questionnaires.

According to Saunders et al. (2000), a research study is valid only if the findings are verifiable and accomplishes that which it sets out to study. A research design is often divided into three broad categories, they include: field, experimental, and observational research. They vary on two important characteristics: internal and external validity.

There are three methods for establishing validity. As Saunders et al. (2000) explains, construct validity entails the establishment of accurate operational measurements for the research’s core concept. This is done by establishing a chain of evidence throughout the data collection process; by verifying key information through the use of multiple sources of information; and by presented informants with a draft of the study for review. Besides establishing construct validity, social science researches need also establish external validity by testing the applicability of the findings to external case studies (Yin, 1989). While conceding to the importance of external validation methods, they are beyond the scope of the current research. Consequently, the research shall seek the verification of its findings through construct validation.

3.7 Limitations of the Methodology
The major limitation of the methodology employed in this study, is in the scope of questionnaires administration, which is limited to employees in five banks amongst the available twenty-five banks. However, this limitation is unavoidable because of the inaccessibility to more banks, limited amount of time and finance needed to conduct more detailed study.
4.1 Introduction
This chapter is concerned with the analysis of data collected from the respondents. The aim of this chapter is to present and analyze data gathered from the primary research in order to extract meaningful insights and produce valid and reliable findings that will help answer the aim and objectives of the research.

4.2 Analysis of the Questionnaire Data
According to Whiteley (2002), descriptive analysis is the process of interpreting data by converting raw data into simplified information. A total number of one hundred employees were randomly selected and given questionnaires. Ninety questionnaires were returned out of which twelve were discarded, because they were not properly filled. A low response rate can raise questions as regards whether the responses received were partially biased or were representative of the sample (Kumar, 2005). However a researcher should strive for a response rate of at least sixty percent. Hence, for this research study, a feedback of eighty-three percent in this research is therefore taken to be acceptable.

Table 4-1 Frequency: Gender
Gender Frequency Percentage (%)
Male 41 52.6
Female 37 47.4
Total 78 100
Table 4-1 above shows the gender of respondents. It can be seen that 52.65% of the respondents are male, while 47.4% are females.

Table 4-2 Marital Status
Marital Status Frequency Percentage (%)
Never Married 51 65.4
Married 24 30.8
Divorced 3 3.8
Widowed – –
Total 78 100

Table 4-2 above shows that 65.4% of the respondents have never been married; 30.8% are married; 3.8% are divorced; while non is widowed. Figure 4-2 further illustrates that majority of the respondents have never been married, while minority are divorced.

Table 4-3 Present Department
Department Frequency Percentage (%)
Customer Service 11 14.1
Marketing 17 21.8
Human Resources 16 20.5
Logistics 19 24.4
Information Technology 15 19.2
Total 78 100

Table 4-3 above shows the respective departments of respondents. It can be seen that 24.5% of the respondents work in the logistics department; 21.8% work in marketing; 20.5% work in human resources; 19.2% work in information technology; and 14.1% work in customer service. Furthermore, figure 4-3 illustrates that majority of the respondents work in the logistics department, while minority work in the customer service department.



Table 4-4 above shows the number of years the respondents have been working in the organisation. It can be seen that 53% of the respondents have worked in the organisation from zero to five years; 38.5% have worked from six to ten years; 6.4% have worked from sixteen to twenty years; while, 2.6% have worked from twenty-one to twenty-five years. Figure 4-4 further illustrates that majority of the respondents have worked in their organisation from zero to five years, while minority have worked from twenty-one to twenty-five years.3-5

6-7Table 4-5 above shows the educational levels of the respondents. It can be seen that none of the respondents posses just a college degree; 57.8% of the total population have completed a tertiary education and possess a degree or a diploma; while, 42.3% possess a masters or doctorate degree. Furthermore, the Figure above illustrates that majority of the respondents have degree or a diploma, while minority have a masters or doctorate degree



Table 4-6 above shows the current position of the respondents. It is evident that 51.3% of the total respondents’ current position is at the junior level; 43.6% are at the senior level while 5.1% are the executive level. Figure 4-6 above further illustrates that majority of the respondents are at the junior level, while minority are at executive level.

Table 4-7 I understand clearly the aims and objectives of my company. agreeaj

Table 4-7 above shows 55.1% of the respondents strongly agree that they understand clearly the aims and objectives of their respective companies’, while, 44.9% simply agree that the understand their companies aims and objectives; while non of the respondents took a neutral stand, disagreed or strongly disagreed Figure 4-7 further illustrates that majority of the respondents strongly agree to understanding the aims and objectives of their companies, while minority simply agreed.



Table 4-8 above shows 33.3% of the respondents strongly agree that their goals are aligned with that of their companies; 50% simply agree; 7.7% took a neutral stand; while 9% disagreed. Figure 4-8 further illustrates that majority of the respondents strongly agree to understanding the aims and objectives of their companies, while minority took a neutral stand.


Table 4-9 above shows 12.8% of the respondents strongly agree that personal problems serve as obstacles for effective performance of their work; 16.7% simply agree; 6.4% took a neutral stand; 38.5% disagreed; while, 25.6% strongly disagreed. Furthermore, figure 4-9 further illustrates that majority of the respondents disagree that personal problems serve as obstacles for their effective work performance, while minority took a neutral stand.



Table 4-10 above shows that 32.1% of the respondents strongly agree that the managers in their respective companies know what really motivates them; 48.7% simply agree; 5.1% took a neutral stand; 7.7% disagree; while, 6.4% strongly disagree. Figure 4-10 further illustrates that majority of the respondents agree that management knows what really motivates them for improved performance, while minority took a neutral stand.



Table 4-11 above shows 30.8% of the respondents strongly agree that they are satisfied with the present motivational strategies used in their respective organisations; 46.2% simply agree; 6.4% took a neutral stand; 12.8% disagree; while, 3.8% strongly disagree. Furthermore, figure 4-10 illustrates that majority of the respondents agree that they are satisfied with the present motivational strategies used in their respective organisations, while minority strongly disagree.


Table 4-12 above shows 28.2% of the respondents strongly agree that management involves them in decision-making; 16.7% simply agree; 11.5% took a neutral stand; 30.8% disagree; while, 12.8% strongly disagree. Furthermore, figure 4-12 illustrates that majority of the respondents strongly disagree that they are involved in decision-making by their respective organisations, while minority took a neutral stand.



Table 4-13 above shows that 29.5% of the respondents strongly agree that there is a periodical increase in salary in their companies; 42.3% simply agree; 6.4% took a neutral stand; 9.0% disagree; while, 12.8% strongly disagree. Furthermore, figure 4-13 illustrates that majority of the respondents agree that there exist periodical increase in salary in their respective companies, while minority took a neutral stand.


Table 4-14 above shows that 47.4% of the respondents strongly agree that there is good inter-personal relationship amongst employees in their organisations; 41% simply agree; 9% took a neutral stand; 2.6% disagree; while, none strongly disagree. Furthermore, figure 4-14 illustrates that majority of the respondents agree that there exist periodical increase in salary in their respective companies, while minority disagree.



Table 4-15 above shows that 46.2% of the respondents strongly agree that there is equal promotional opportunities for male and female employees in their organisations; 41% simply agree; 5.1% took a neutral stand; 7.7% disagree; while, none strongly disagree. Furthermore, figure 4-15 illustrates that majority of the respondents strongly agree that there exist equal promotional opportunities for male and female employees in their organisations, while minority disagree.



Table 4-16 above shows that 15.4% of the respondents strongly agree that in their respective organisations, management allows them use their discretion to schedule work and determine how it is to be done; 39.7% simply agree; 6.4% took a neutral stand; 24.4% disagree; while, 14.1% strongly disagree. Furthermore, figure 4-16 illustrates that majority of the respondents agree that in their respective organisations, management allows them use their discretion to schedule work and determine how it is to be done, while minority strongly disagree. av


Table 4-17 above shows that 47.4% of the respondents feel secured in their company; 33.3% feel valued; 10.3% feel dispensable; while, 9% feel they are invisible. Furthermore, figure 4-17 illustrates that majority of the respondents have a sense of security in their organisations while minority feel invisible


4.3 Results of the Structured Interview
In exploring this, a face-to-face interview with five managers from the banks under study was conducted. The results are presented below.


5.1 Introduction
Ample evidence from various studies on motivation and employee performances has resulted in application of different kinds of motivational strategies. For the objectives of an organisation to be attained, and to motivate employees effectively, there is the need to understand the different types of motivation theories, strategies and concepts. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to evaluate motivation of employees in an organisation.

However, managerial strategies and tactics must be broad based in order to address the motivation concerning individual employees (Guest, 1997). This research was guided by two key questions:
• What are the factors that can adequately motivate employees in order to improve their performance?
• What are the impacts of the available motivational factors on employee’s performance?

The primary aim of this research is investigate the important factors that are essential in motivating employees. The researcher was also interested in analyzing the impact of motivation on employee’s performance. The context for the study was the Nigerian banking sector, which has grown from a few institutions who primarily were involved in deposit acceptance and trade finance into a complex multiplayer market where large number of financial institutions, commercial banks operate with diverse products and services.
To achieve the aims of this study, the following objectives are set:
• To determine the motivational strategies used by management in the banking sector in Nigeria.
• To identify the motivational factors that directly influences employees’ performance.
• To examine how effective these motivational factors are on employees’ performances.

This chapter recaps discusses the results as they relate to the research objectives and then presents conclusions and recommendations.

5.2 Discussion of the Results
Descriptive statistics were first provided. In terms of gender, the sample was split almost evenly between males and females. Respondents were also spread relatively evenly across five departments: Customer Service, Marketing, Human Resources, Logistics, and Information Technology. Most respondents were with the company less than 10 years, with only 7 respondents working for their organisation longer than this. Respondents had high educational attainment, with slightly more than 50% having a degree and the rest having a Masters degree. Four executives completed the questionnaire, while the rest were roughly split between junior and senior staff. Five managers were interviewed who had worked with their companies between 1 and 6 years. The next questions relate specifically to the research objectives 1-3 and are discussed under these elements below.

Objective 1: To determine the motivational strategies used by management in the banking sector in Nigeria.
All of the respondents claimed to understand the aims and objectives of their organisation. However, only 88.3% responded that their goals were aligned with the goals of their organisation. A few were neutral, while 7 respondents clearly disagreed. Most of the respondents did not feel that their personal problems serve were obstacles for their effective work performance, but 35.9% saw their personal issues as obstacles or potential obstacles to their performance at work. A majority of respondents thought that managers understood what would motivate them, but again 15 of the respondents were neutral or disagreed with this statement. In line with this, 18 respondents claimed that they were neutral or not satisfied with the present motivational strategies used in their organisation, while the majority claimed to be satisfied.

In terms of decision-making, as many people did not feel that they were included in the decisions made by management as those that agreed with the statement. In terms of salary, most respondents received an increase in their salary periodically but several respondents did not. Most employees reported good working relationships with their colleagues as well as equal opportunities for males and female employees. However, a smaller percentage of workers (although the majority) agreed that management allowed them to use their discretion to schedule work. Finally, when asked how they felt about their organisation, only 47.4% said they felt secure, although another 33.3% said they felt valued. Still, 19.3% of respondents felt either dispensable or invisible.

From the interviews, managers stated that they used various feedback mechanisms to identify employees’ needs in order to adopt strategies used to motivate individual employees. One manager also noted that biodata forms were used and two managers mentioned the use of surveys. The same methods were used by managers to managers ensure that there is no contradiction between employee’s identification of his/her needs and the company’s perception of the employee’s needs.

Objective 2: To identify the motivational factors that directly influences employee’s performance.
Respondents were asked about motivational factors and the impact they thought that these had on work performance, ranging from highly effective to ineffective. The factors were generally thought to be highly effective or effective, although a large minority was neutral on several of the factors. As hypothesized in the literature, interesting work was deemed one of the most effective factor, although it was not ranked higher than financial incentives. Flexible working conditions also ranked highly as would be expected based on hygiene theory. Job security, promotion and growth, and tactful discipline were also ranked highly. Personal loyalty from employers seemed to be the lowest on the scale. While these were listed as separate motivators, it has been argued that these must be used in conjunction. As noted in the literature review, Herzberg argues that if the basic factors are missing, such as appropriate levels of financial compensation, workers will be dissatisfied irrespective of whether other factors are present, such as flexible working conditions.

When managers were asked what factors they thought motivated their staff to improve their performance, a range of factors were mentioned especially financial incentives. Financial incentives were mentioned first by all the respondents and then non-financial incentives such as promotion, public recognition, and flexible working conditions. This shows a parallel between what employees claim to be most important and what managers identified as important. This congruence is likely due to the fact that the managers’ perceptions seem to be based on feedback and surveys from employees.

Objective 3: To examine how effective these motivational factors are on employee’s performances.
All of the managers rated that these mechanisms were very effective in motivating employees. This may well be because these mechanisms are used together, such as good financial rewards, public recognition, and flexible working conditions. Managers claimed to review the adopted motivational factors to ensure that they are in accordance with the changing needs of your employees on a regular basis, ranging from six months to one year.

5.3 Conclusion and Recommendations
According to Herzberg, the factors that cause job satisfaction are different from those that cause job dissatisfaction. Thus if the firm tries to deal with the factors that create job dissatisfaction, such as salary, they can bring about peace but will not automatically motivate workers (Robbins, 2000). This means that “if you want people to do a good job, give them a good job to do,” rather than simply trying to deal with de-motivating factors. However, whilst good financial rewards, public recognition, and flexible working conditions are important for motivation and accountability, these factors by themselves are not sufficient to lead to high motivation because employees will take responsibility for maximum performance only if there is managerial envisioning, in that he or she sees the organisation in such a way that he is responsible for its survival and success through his performance, and this visualisation can only be accomplished through participation (Drucker, 1954). And as argued by Herzberg (1987) and others, financial rewards are also not the main motivator for most employees in the contemporary industrial society. The greatest economic incentives are not replacements for accountability nor for the appropriate management of the job (Drucker, 1954). Non-financial inducements, nevertheless, cannot recompense for dissatisfaction with the financial rewards (Drucker, 1954). Overall, this means that the organisation has to do more to motivate workers than just compensation, good working conditions, and similar factors. Instead, jobs have to be enriched so that workers have opportunities for achievement and recognition, stimulation, responsibility, and advancement (Herzberg, 1987).

5.4 Limitations and Areas for Future Research
In carrying out this research, several issues arose that may limit the validity or generalisability of the reported results. The three main limitation of this research work are outlined below:
1. Some respondents were sceptical in filling the questionnaires and so they refused to release vital information for fear of the unknown.
2. Most management in the banks were not forthcoming in answering questions as regards their actual management and motivational strategies.
3. The scope of questionnaires administered was limited to employees in five banks amongst the available consolidated twenty-five banks. However, this limitation is unavoidable because of the inaccessibility to more banks, limited amount of time and finance needed to conduct more detailed study.

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