Magoosh GRE

Next Generation Networks

| March 18, 2015

Chapter 1: Introduction
Next Generation Networks is a term started to be heard more and more. The move from coaxial networks to modern 10Base-T twisted pair networks was a great step forward. User productivity increased as new networks started to roll out larger Ethernet networks. Users had the ability to access other resources like files and printers in easier ways. Networks became easier to troubleshoot and manage; and connections were more reliable. When Ethernet switches hit the market a whole new generation of networks was created, making networks reliable, faster and more efficient.
NGN is a general term that describes major architectural evolutions in telecommunication networks. It is a technology that will enable a single network to transport multiple traffic formats: “voice”, “data”, “video est.”, by containing these in “packets”. It is a packet-based network which has its functionality which is service-related and is independent from any primary transport-related technology. NGN is a fusion of various service provider networks, namely: “Public switched telephone network” (PSTN), the World Wide Web and the wireless network. A predominant objective of NGN is the support for a high bandwidth, high mobility and most importantly, the provision of a composite communication model.
A major motivation for the NGN is to provide new and diverse services, value-addition, IP-centered services and applications, as well as reduce the Capital Expense and operational expenses, by utilizing the network resources more efficiently. This dissertation, among other things, looks into the architecture of the NGN, services, Key NGN Technologies and investigates how NGN are already used today by businesses. In a nutshell, this project will look into the development of Next Generation Networks, services, architecture and Framework.

Chapter 2: Methodology

All necessary data used in this study are gathered from literature sources and this study is based on literature review.

2.1 Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research methodology concerning Next Generation Networks. This dissertation study NGN and related issues. It is a literature review research. All required information is founded upon preliminary studies, papers and dissertations; primary data will not be utilized.
To attain up-to-date data, the information attainment process focuses upon a wide variety of industry standards, papers, books, as well as journals, to obtain accurate and relevant data. This dissertation focuses mainly on NGN architecture and services, technologies, key solutions, benefits, drivers and challenges, design Issues and implementations, and network interconnection. Some key words were used in the most famous search engines like Google scholar and Bing to search for initial information. These key words contain words like NGN architecture, technology, services, NGN and Mobiles, 3G networks and NGN, NGN implementation, and NGN deployment.
The value of this research has been investigated and labeled into one of a variety of groups: “concept”, “architectures of existing network or the NGN” and “deployment issues”. Also, the necessary industry standards needed for this study shall obtained from IETF and ITU-T official websites.
Research Chapters formulated as follows founded upon a literature review and will be aligned to the following structure:
Chapter 1: Introduction to NGN and the current situation of networking industry, it will show the actual need for NGN without providing any technical and hard information to be understood.
Chapter 3: Literature review based on the preceding work related to NGN issues. Chapter 2 will discuss and explore the NGN major issues and trends.
Chapter 4: Investigate the network design issues and implementation, it will also contain a brief overview about OPNET IT Guru which will be used to build up a next generation network topology then test the performance of it.
Chapter 5: Discuss the NGN network interconnection focusing on NGN for PSTN transformation solution.

2.2 Flowchart of Research Methodology:

AMD                                                                Figure 1: Research Methodology Flowchart

Chapter 3: Literature Review

3.1 NGN Overview

Next Generation Network is a powerful platform which provides a broad variety of services such as: “Data”, “Voice” and “Video”. It’s essentially an IP -network enables any form of customers to receive and use different services over the same network (Issues pertaining to NGN, 2006).
3.1.1 What is NGN?
The term NGN is generally used for the modern networks that support converged services. Development and deployment of the state-of-art multiservice networks is the result of the need for business to run multiple IP-based services.
Next generation networks developing are achieved through the use of a broad range of technology; for example, fiber, fixed, cable, mobile wireless or upgrades of existing technologies to the copper-based networks. In minimum words, this is the shift from a “one-to-one network-service approach to a one-to-many network-services” (ITU – NGN Overview, Mar. 2007).
NGNs nowadays are essentially strategically solution for operators in the new increasing converged world of content and services where the sole source of revenue is no longer the voice.byt                             Source: Lakshmi Tech – Next Generation Networking, 2008

Figure 1 shows an example of services can be provided by the NGNs, all these services transferred via packet based network with QoS enabled.

3.1.1.1 Key Characteristics of NGNs

So what exactly is a “Next Generation Network”?
NGN can be defined as a network that uses a simple architecture founded upon QoS-enabled packet technologies, and makes use of multiple high-speed access technologies which are utilized for the delivery of multiple communication service, such as: “data”, “voice” and “video” to end users.
Major elements that make up a Next Generation Network:
• A core network which deploys “Multiprotocol Label Switching” (MPLS) to provide multiple IP-based data, voice and video services.
• Multiple traffic types supporting this, taking into account Quality of Service (QoS) levels to make sure of suitable performance of the individual applications.
• Using a minimum required number of layers and technologies in the core network to simplify management and decrease costs.
• Support systems for delivery and management of services such customer service portals to improve customer experience.
• Supporting a wide range of IP-based access types for connecting to sites and individual users.
In the past, a particular network would be designed specifically to deliver a particular service, which means that a new network must be built for each new service. As a result, there are many legacy networks where managing them are so expensive and complex, also this made it so hard and difficult to create new services and provide multiple-services integrated solutions.
This is the reason behind that many providers for legacy services as PSTN/ISDN voice, SDH leased lines, and ATM/Frame Relay are replacing there networks with a single multiservice network.(Viatel – Guide to NGN, 2007)

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The above key technologies should be implemented in any Next Generation Network to completely satisfy the aim from building such a network.
A summary of these main elements is as follows (Viatel – Guide to NGN, 2007):
 High Capacity Transport Network
• Designed to support very high network capacities with low cost per Megabit.
• Fiber Optics, Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and next generation SDH (ngSDH) are the used key technologies.
• The goal from using DWDM and ngSDH is to decrease the costs by maximizing the bandwidth that can be delivered on fiber optics.

 Converged Core Network
• MPLS and IP are key technology which is deployed within this layer.
• MPLS offers the support of multiple services platform and also supports multiple QoS levels which are then supplied as MPLS Classes of Service (CoS). It facilitates networks to be especially designed to application requirements.
• IP is the most commonly used protocol for communication; it enables multiple applications like voice, data and video to deliver over one single network.

 Converged Access
• IP-traffic can run over a wide range of lower layer access technologies includes ADSL and SDSL, Leased Lines, Ethernet, Wi-Fi and dial/ISDN. By supporting a wide choice of technology options, the access service can be tailored to the need of the site or user.

 Network-Based Applications
• NGNs allow the flexible and cost-effective delivery of application services from a provider to all users or locations with simplified management of applications sources.

 Hosted Customer Applications
• Businesses that are looking forward to the centralization of IT resources can easily do so by using data centers connected directly into the NGN core. This enables much greater flexibility to expand capacity when required then ensures the highest levels of application performance are maintained.
• IT resources can be located in multiple data centers for resilience because business continuity is an important requirement.

 Customer Applications and Networks
• Customer sites and individual users can be integrated effectively into the multiservice company network via the converged access services.

3.1.3 Benefits of Using NGN

Modern network solutions need to support an increasing number of services and applications to offer voice, video and data. NGNs are designed to run multiple-service flexibility and cost-effectively, meeting the performance criteria supported of the various applications. (ITU-T, 2005)
When comparing the NGN architecture and its converged IP capability with legacy networks a lot of benefits can be seen: (Vibaha Kasturi – A comprehensive study of NGN platforms, 2011)
 A full range of business applications supporting across all sites and users
• This will make business enable to run IT and communication applications demanded for their business without being constrained by the location of sites and users and wide area network.
 Mare scalable and flexible
• NGN is constructed to supply alterations to customer softly as needed. Highest class of voice traffic can be carried by NGN. Scalability enables organizations to move up in a quick way and make use of the service when required, to the conventional system of using extra hardware to handle the expected increase in capacity.
 Easier to manage with lower costs
• Consolidating services into one IP network results in reduced demand on stuff time and skills, which make them free to deal and concentrate on core business applications.
• Purchasing managed services further reducing stuffing demands and fixed cost structure.
• Direct cost savings can also be achieved through free VoIP calls,
 More innovative and easier to deploy new services
• IT and communication applications that use IP are no longer closely tied to underlying transport-related technologies. This allows business to deploy new innovative applications as needed without any fundamental changes to the network.
• The relation between application and network comes down to required applications performance and geographic availability, based on a lot of factors as bandwidth capacity, QoS level, network topology, access options and resilience.

 Local and Global
• Services of MSP may be internationally used, available whenever to aid branches and offices. Users will be able to run a lot available multiple service data networking via this system which will achieve the aim of reducing the cost to run networks.

3.2 How IP mobile can combine together in terms of NGN.

IP mobile is a standard that enables network users to remain connected even when they move from their own network to another one which has different IP addresses. IP mobile is mostly used in wireless environments where users move across multiple networks with different IP addresses (Cisco, 2012).
Upon moving to a different network, the IP protocol informs the home network of an address where all packets can be sent. This is very different from the fixed dial up or the stationary wired network users. With IP mobile technology, the next generation of cellular phones such as the Smart phones, GPRS phones and PDAs are implemented increasing connectivity that is very important for the user business activities.
IP mobile is mostly beneficial where the users need the freedom of mobility while still maintaining their home IP addresses. This is mostly the desire of most users to maintain a single IP address as they move around the world. Mobile IP also enables the maintenance of sessions even as the user moves from one geographical location to another.
One of the companies that has been able to deploy this Next generation networks (NGNs) technology is the Cisco Systems Inc., by using several cellular technologies such as the NAMPS, CMDA and GSM to provide great solutions to in areas where wireless network is being utilized that will scale for many users (Cisco, 2012).
In the Next Generation Networks (NGNs) technology, the IP mobile can be implemented in such a way that each mobile node is identified only by its home address allowing the user to transparently move with respect to other network devices. Only the home router in the user’s geographical home subnet and the mobile device are aware of the node’s movement (Cisco, 2012).
In the Next Generation Networks (NGNs) technology, IP mobile service can also be broadly described as the IP Multimedia that can provide the voice and video services as well as very good messaging capabilities. IP Multimedia also has the features for the data file exchange, and can save time and money that can be spent on travelling to meeting by offering live audio and video conferencing.

aaaaa                                                                                    Figure 5: Interworking between VoIP and NGN
Source: (Sunicodata, 2012)
Next Generation Networks technology has provided IP Multimedia that enables files and other multimedia documents to be shared and transferred between two user computers without necessarily using the email service. Also this technology provides a centralized mailbox for all the multimedia data.
An individual with just a single IP address can use it for both the voice and data applications in his personal computer, and thus the IP Multimedia technology offers a very flexible working environment where the user can work remotely. This saves time in addition to enabling the user to use the communications technology more effectively (Virgin Media Business, 2012).
IP Multimedia using the Next Generation Networks (NGNs) technology can assist managers and other supervisors to monitor the presence of an employee. This is through the updates sent to the network regarding the status of if the computer is in use. Also employees can communicate easily by using text-based online conversation service known as the Instant Messaging.
Additionally, Next Generation Networks (NGNs) technology, using IP Multimedia can offer an easy way for two people to chat using the webcam. Also multiparty video meetings can easily be deployed using the IP Multimedia (Virgin Media Business, 2012).
IP based network as provided by NGN enables clients to receive data, voice and video in the same communication channel. NGN is as a result of movement of packet in a network this principle would not be possible without IP addresses that identify network components. The concept of IP in conjunction with NGN separates applications from hardware components of the network. This is because IP can effectively travel in the air to the mobile phone in the NGN. This support continuity of voice call (voice streaming) and videos (video streaming).
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NGN reduce the complexity of a network and provide all the services in the same platform. IP mobile offers unrestricted access to users from various service providers thus encouraging mobility. It is possible to offer convergent media services by use of shared core network that support all type of services due to transfer of data in packets. IP addresses allow open and standard interfaces which occur between each layer. This enables third party to create their applications that is independent of the network. IP addresses provide an identification schemes commonly used in routing packets across a network. This forms a fundamental aspect of NGN resulting to successful communication.
IP interconnection of voice over internet protocol (VOIP) application offer a neutral access point (NAP). This go in hand with the need for security as required in NGN. By use of User/operator authentication and authorization using IP it is possible to grants/deny some rights to network users. NGN lead to increase in unsolicited traffic. This situation is dealt with by establishing secure protocols, storage and communication hence forming a basic block of smooth exchange of data in NGN.
Use of IP networks forms the foundation for efficient service delivery that is flexible and simplifying the network to improve scalability that support NGN. This result due to optimal routing of traffic across a network by use of IP based transport. Faultless mobility by use of intra and inter radio access technology which also increase the speed rate of data as required by NGN. NGN require a flat all IP-based multiple access core network example (system Architecture Evolution) that will ensure service control which maximize network capacity with narrow spectrum resources. This is necessary since NGN demand for real time and non-real time exchange of information.
NGN architecture control plane targets in accommodating all types of IP-based network. It is broad enough to contain a wide collection of services for the new generation that includes; conversation services, streaming and upcoming interactive games. NGN is as a result of advancement in IP that relies on routing and packet switching technologies. The use of signaling protocols to controls user sessions and ensuring quality of services through regulating traffic in a network forms basic for NGN architecture.

3.3 Control mechanism for multimedia traffic.

As the cost for multimedia is decreasing with time, it’s using is increasing and thus increasing the multimedia traffic. The major problem that results from the deployment of both the voice and video multimedia on the network is related to bandwidth and on the need to meet the maximum delay requirements (IPv6, 2007).
The problem associated with time delay is of major concern when the multimedia services are of real time interaction. This leads to the need and concern to improve the routing of multimedia packets through the IP networks. Some of the control mechanism used to control multimedia traffic is the migration from Ipv4 to Ipv6. This has the advantage in that; there is an addition of two fields, that is, the Priority field and the Flow Label field on the Ipv6. This IP version also provides a large addressing space that can be reserved by the multimedia addresses.
Another mechanism that is used to control multimedia traffic is the best-effort mechanism. It is developed on the idea that a network should by all means try to deliver the IP network packets but without necessarily guaranteeing that the packet will be delivered or that the delivery time will be guaranteed (Ipv6, 2007).
Quality of Service (QoS) is another mechanism that controls multimedia traffic. QoS is majorly used real-time interaction applications such as transmission of video images in live video conferencing. QoS should allow by all means possible, minimum packet delays and must be well labeled to show that it’s carrying multicast information.
Additionally, a network can generally control its traffic in two ways: by using the packet scheduler and by using buffer management. These two methods are more complex in contrast to the traditionally tradition control mechanisms that were implemented using simple methods deployed on routers (Ipv6, 2007).
The Packet Scheduler mechanism uses priority tables and each packet is given a priority prior to its transmission. This gives the packets with the highest priority a chance to be transmitted first. However, the mechanism may cause packets with the lowest priority to wait indefinitely before they are transmitted.
The Buffer Management Mechanism uses storage buffers that hold packets that arrive at a higher rate than the rate at which they can be transmitted. However, if more packets arrive that have greater capacity than the buffer, some are discarded. The mechanism should be implemented such that the discarded packets are not chosen at random but on an algorithm that specifies the function or type of application in which the packet belongs to (Ipv6, 2007).

3.4 How different networks and topology benefit from using NGN.

The migration to the NGN brings some major structural changes to the network topology. This includes changing of the network hierarchy levels and the core network nodes reorganization. The interconnection frameworks have also been revised due to the shift to IP networks in development of the internet markets. NGN has also increased access to poles and ducts of the fibred networks by new entrants. However the introduction of NGN has positive side of increasing speeds through fibred networks (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008).
As a result of migration to the IP_NGN, there is a general lessen change across the count of points that the interconnections may take place. The number and location points at which the service provider networks can connect to the BT’s voice and data services has reduced significantly to about 105 Metro-node sites. However the locations and the number of exchanges on the local loop will probably not be affected by the facing-out of the 21CN.
Additionally NGN can generate the geographical re-arrangement of the points of the network topology interconnections and in the reduction in these points. It may also require new investments in the infrastructure by new entrants to satisfy the points of network interconnection. Greater considerations may also put into concern on the different fibred network topologies in the NGN environment and their differing points of interconnection. NGN also has brought the advantage of decreasing the cost and complexity of controlling and monitoring many networks by integrating them into a core multimedia network thus cutting on capital and network operation costs and expenses (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008).
NGN has lent to more interactive and flexible networks that can enable businesses to integrate their services and thus ensuring centralized resources secure access and intelligence. This may include point to point (P2P) networks instant messaging, video conferencing and elimination of PSTN voice services.
NGN has therefore been very essential to strategically positioning of service providers to compete by converging their services where voice is not the only means of communication. NGN has increased the quality of both the wired and wireless access networks. This is due to greater flexibility offered by the IP-based environment. However, NGN infrastructures have brought about new regulatory and economic issues on the network topologies. This may include tapping of information and spoofing by adversaries (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008).
The advancement in broadband and mobile networks has led to the unification of networks. The NGN network is rapidly developing globally, being an IP based network, and NGN takes the features of different networks and integrates them all into an IP network. As standardization progresses at a global level, NGN network infrastructure offers excellent security and guaranteed delivery thus offering a seamless service. Fewer infrastructures are required in NGN, only one network is necessary to transport data, voice, and video. The transport technology is independent on the service, regardless of the service being offered (data, voice, or video), the same level of quality of service is observed. This is accomplished by encapsulating the data into packets. Since NGN is packet-based, it is capable of utilizing multiple broadband while still upholding quality of service and offering unrestricted access to all users regardless of the service.
NGN is capable of providing optimal speed and unbroken connectivity, it can be used to manage service priority and maintain communication speed without much overhead. This provides the most suitable network for video delivery, IP phones, email, and business systems data backups.
Terminal and user authentication are used to reduce spoofing and hacking attacks on the network. NGN is also used to provide masked IP addressing, filtering functionality and attack surveillance services that companies had previously built themselves. This gives a high level of internet security. NGN usage is flexible and efficient, giving mobile services and consumer services the same level of high security, high quality and high speed as if using a leased line network anywhere, at any time.
NGN has a distinct differentiation separating the transport part of a network and services offered above the transport portion. This implies that when a user needs to enable a new service they just need to define it at the service layer. This is because different services are independent of the transport layer.
Historically, different services had their own dedicated network (based on IP and Ethernet). NGN consolidates these dedicated transport networks into a single core transport network. NGN has migrated the circuit switched (PSTN) from the traditional architecture into a more advanced Voice over IP technology. Legacy service like frame relay has been migrated to IP VPN, this has been accomplished by emulating the legacy service on the NGN network.
Within the access network, NGN requires the migration from dual-system legacy voice into DSLAMs which integrate voice ports, which eradicates the need for a voice switching infrastructure. In cable access, the system requires migration of the constant bit-rate voice into Packet Cables or Cable Labs, these standards provide SIP and VoIP services. SIP and VoIP service use DOCSIS as the cable data standard. Although services are independent on the transport details, increased applications such as voice and video tend to be independent on the access network (GSM, 3G, Wi-Fi, xDSL, and Cable) it may be dependent to the performance of the end-user device (PC or Phone).

3.5 Key Solutions Using NGN

Next Generation Networks (NGNs) is providing many solutions to today’s businesses and has also provided means to provide additional worth to the transport services. Firstly, they have helped in reducing the cost of non-reusable solutions by eliminating all the inefficiencies of the current proprietary services. Secondly, allows the carrier networks to cut the cost that is used in the support of sophisticated services (Sherbini, 2008).
Thirdly, NGNs will enable businesses to reduce the costs of offering new services and the time to market. Additionally, NGNs allows the carriers to remain competitive, deploy advanced services and also to enter new markets by expanding their capabilities.
In order to adopt successively in the market, businesses are provided with exclusive NGN services that include: Voice Portal which is a simple voice command that provides callers from anyplace and anytime to access information such as account balances, breaking news, updates on weather, on their stock updates and may other important information (Sherbini, 2008). Secondly, Voice Telephony services such as Call Forwarding, Call Waiting and Way Calling are also important drivers in the NGN environment. Additionally NGNs provide Data services solutions such as bandwidth-on-demand and connection reliability. Multimedia services provided by NGNs enable the customers and other users to communicate with each other while their visual information is displayed (Sherbini, 2008).
Virtual Private Networks provided by the NGNs technology provides customers with uniform dialing capabilities by combining rather large and geographically dispersed institutions’ private networks with public switched telephone network (PSTN). Additionally, NGNs technologies provide public network-based computing for consumers and businesses. These services are commonly referred to as Public Network Computing and include services such as backup of the data files, hosting of a website page, to run a computing application, among other services.
Just using a website, a consumer or customer can automatically call a center agent. This is via the Call Center Services that are provided by the next generation networks (NGNs) technology. Also E-Commerce provided by the NGNs technology allows the businesses currently to allow their customers to purchase goods and services, using their credit cards electronically over the network.
Internet agents use a service provided by the NGNs technology called Information Brokering to advertise and provide information that can match consumers with service providers. Also services such as email, voice mail, Fax mail, and other web pages can easily be delivered using Unified Messaging provided by the NGNs technology.
Companies that provide home security services can use a Home Manager service provided by the NGNs technology to monitor and control the home security systems of their clients. Also other home appliances such as the energy systems and the entertainment systems can easily be controlled and monitored using this NGNs technology.
Moreover, Distributed Virtual Reality is a NGNs technology in which both the service providers of the virtual experience and their customers are “physically distributed”, and where the providers “offer technologically generated representations of the real world events places, people or even their entertaining experiences” (Sherbini, 2008).
The discussion above outlines some of the services and key solutions that can be provided by using NGNs technology. Examples of business that are currently using these services include: UK INDIA Business Council (UKIBC) that has already deployed a business to business Online Hub (B2B Hub) platform for UK and India Companies to interactively and effectively meet their business transactions online (UK-INDIA Business Council, 2012).
Search Cloud provider is also another business that is currently providing Next Generation Networks (NGNs) technology. The company provides a transformation of the business models to the Next-generation network convergence. This includes both the IP network convergence and also provides an established platform and a strategy that provides their clients with a solid return to their investment on the next-generation network.
Cisco Systems Inc., has built a very strong network infrastructures and platforms such as the CRS-1, ARS Series and Nexus Series that provides support to the mobile, video, data, multimedia, cloud or managed services. The company provides leading services to their clients and also an excellent foundation for their current and future networking needs. It also provides data services all the way to the premise of their clients.
Technology Marketing Corporation is a leading communications company in the technology community. The organization provides business VoIP services that are a core technology in the Next-generation networks (NGNs) technology. These also includes solutions such as comprehensive back up, business telephone systems, broadband, mobiles services and fixed lines (TMC, 2012).
NGN has also resulted to metro Ethernet that is substituting SONET to access computer networks. This has cut down the cost of network resources such as bandwidth requirements and increases video traffic. This results to communication and exchange of crucial business information hence increasing turnover. NGN has also addressed concerns for managers such as consistency between services rendered to their customers and by the service added value that make their product more appealing to users. NGN plays a key role in this area by ensuring that the basic customer services are not compromised.
NGN has widen the market by providing internet protocols for end to end users and intermediary network support devices which provide flexibility and support multiple end user to exchange key business information. Thus customers can access more information from the internet where they learn more of a product. It has cut down cost of operation of business activities. Capital equipment costs needed for centralized BRAS are higher than that for NGN carrier Ethernet.
The telecommunication market is growing remarkably fast. New products are continuously coming into the market and competition is increasing. On this platform NGN provides solutions to companies by putting them in a competitive edge. It maximizes investment return by using NGN, which results to innovative ideas that create a center of attention to customers by providing new services or improved version of the existing products. Hence using benefits of NGN ensures business sustainability.
In general use of NGN has played a significant role in providing key business solutions. Customers are able to meet their needs effectively due to quality of service mechanisms. Furthermore, capacity and connectivity provided by NGN is fast and reliable unless network failure occurs. NGN also bring communication into reality by providing unified voice and data being transmitted over the network. Reliability and flexibility is also guaranteed which is particularly essential for smooth running of businesses as information can be transacted at a faster rate and with reliability.

access3.6 NGN Architecture and Services

The NGN system is used to define telecommunications network architectures and technology.
NGN system includes networks which encompass PSTN data-types as well as voice communications and video.
Every bit of data is included within a packet switched form, which is enabledby the Internet.
Packets are labeled “according to their type (data, voice, video, etc.) and forwarded in the network based on their Quality of Service (QoS) and security parameters” (ITU-T, 2001)
The NGN posits an explicit devision amongst transport and services. This is promoted in order to smoothly introduce the new services. When a provider aims to promote a service, “the service is defined directly at the service layer without considering the transport layer, i.e. services are independent of the transport technology” (C.-S. Lee, D. Knigth, 2005)

3.6.1 NGN Architecture

NGN functions can be separated into “service” and “transport” layers due to the separation of transport and services. “User-to-network interface” (UNI) connects end-user functions to the NGN, while “network-to-network interface” (NNI) interconnects networks. The “application-to-network interface” (ANI) is utilized to facilitate third-party application implementations. The below figure provides an overview of NGN functional architecture (ITU-T, 2011).

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3.6.1.1 Transport Functions

The purpose of the Transport Function is to supply a level of connectivity amongst every component within the NGN and also physically separates them. IP (Internet Protocol) is a popular technology used for transportation and IP connectivity will be provided for end-user equipment by the transport layer. The transport layer is split into “access and core network” (K. Knightson, N. Motita, T. Towle, 2005).
 The following lists the major transport functions: (ITU-T, 2011)
• Access functions: Handle end-user’s access to the NGN network. Numerous types of access technology are supported; for example, DSL, wireless technology, cable access, Ethernet technology and optical access.
• Access transport functions: This is key for the transportation of data through the access network. Offer QoS control mechanisms which directly handle the user traffic, such as queuing and scheduling, packet filtering, buffer management, marking, policing and traffic shaping, traffic classification.
• Edge functions: This is utilized for traffic processing as a result of merging access traffic with the core network.
• Core transport functions: Make sure of transporting data via the core network. By interacting with the transport control functions, they supply the means to differentiate the quality of transport. Core transport functions also provide QoS mechanisms to control user traffic.
• Network attachment control functions (NACF): Offer registration and initialization of end-user functions at the access level to allow access to NGN services. They also assist the end-user equipment in registering and beginning to use NGN by announcing the contact point of the NGN service and application functions.
• Resource and admission control functions (RACFs): provide gate and admission control functionality, such as control of NAPT and management of DSCPs. Admission control also includes authentication and authorization of user profile taking into consider also operator-specific policy rules and resource availability.
• Transport user profile functions: Compose the user and other control information to make a single “user profile” function in the transport layer. This function may be specified and implemented with functionality residing in any part of an NGN as a set of cooperating databases.
• Gateway functions: Offer capabilities to interwork with additional networks, primarily Internet and PSTN networks. It also includes interworking with additional NGNs which owned and operated by other administrators.
• Media handling functions (MHF): Are used to provide services like transcoding, conference-call bridging and tone signal generation.

3.6.1.2 Service Functions

NGN services include “session” and “non-session” -based services. Typical examples of session-based services are IP telephony and video conferencing while video streaming and broadcasting non-session-based services. NGN also “supports network functionality associated with existing PSTN services” (N. Carugi, B. Hirschman, A. Narita, 2005)
Service and control functions: Encompass “session control” functions, a “registration” function , “authentication” and “authorization” functions at the service level (ITU-T, 2011)
Service user profile functions: Encompass the user and other control data which comprise a single user profile function in the service layer which could be implemented as a group of “co-operating databases with functionality located in any part of an NGN” (K. Knightson, N. Motita, T. Towle, 2005).
Application functions: These are “trusted” or “untrusted” and are primarily utilized by third-party service providers to gain access to NGN service layer capabilities and resources through servers or gateways in the service layer. This is essential functionality because “NGNs support open APIs that enable third-party service providers to use NGN capabilities in creating enhanced services for NGN users” (ITU-T, 2011).

3.6.1.3 Management Functions

Management functions enable operator of the NGN to handle and provide the NGN network services with the required reliability, quality and security. Management functions interact with the network element management are distributed to each functional entity (A. R. Modarresi, S. Mohan, 2000)
Charging and billing functions are also included in the management functions, which collect resource utilization information by interacting with each other. This data allows an operator to properly charge users: “the collected charging and billing information can be used for online interactions, such as for offline interactions, and prepaid services” (K. Knightson, N. Motita, T. Towle, 2005)

3.6.1.4 End User Functions

These can be “physical” or “functional” interfaces; ITU-T (2011) and there is no limit placed on the formats of customer interface which are able to connect to an NGN network. NGN supports a wide variety of equipment categories, “from single line legacy telephones to complex corporate networks and the end-user equipment may be either fixed or mobile” (ITU-T, 2011).

3.6.2 NGN Services

There is a selection of services which have been associated with NGN and have been seen as potential suitors for implementation in NGN, many of which are already available but others still at the conceptual stage. Many of these services can be offered using conventional platforms, while some can benefit from the new generation of networking reliability, management, advanced control, and signaling capabilities. It’s always said that new services are almost the primary motivators for the new revolution of NGNs, initial NGNs profits actually may still result from the old traditional services. So, conventional services will “pay for the network and other new services whereas emerging services will fuel the growth” (Oscar González Soto, 2005).
Conventional services can be transport, routing, access and switching services, basic resource, connectivity and session control services, as well as many other value-added services. NGNs “will likely enable a much broader array of service types” (J. C. Crimi, 2005).
This array of services includes:
• Specialized resource services such as “multimedia multi-point conferencing bridges”, “media conversion units”, “voice recognition units” and “provision” and “management of transcoders”.
• Processing and storage services like “file servers”, “terminal servers”, “provision” and “management of information storage units” which can be ued for messaging and OS platforms.
• “Middleware services” such as: security, licensing, naming, transactions, brokering, etc.
• Application-specific services like e-Commerce applications, interactive video games, supply-chain management applications and business applications.
• Content provision services that broker or provides information content (information push services, electronic training, etc.)
• Interworking services for interactions with additional forms of applications, services, networks, protocols, or formats, such as EDI translation.
• Management services to operate manage and maintain communications and computing networks and services.
Figure 8 gives examples of several services that will be offered in next generation networks which are thought to be key functions within the NGN environment. The Figure intentionally includes a wide variety of services from simple voice telephony to more advanced systems, such as Distributed Virtual Reality, to show that the Next Generation Service Architecture will have the ability to facilitate a broad range of services.

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Chapter 4: NGN Designing and Testing

This chapter will discuss the design issues and implementation requirements for next generation networks, it will use OPNET IT Guru to build up a NGNs then test the performance of the networks designed that is NGN reliability.
4.1 Design Issues and Implementation requirements
There are a number of network design issues in the implementation of NGN technology. The first major design issue is the Cost of implementation. This is due to requirements in network management software, network protocol software and the digital signal processing software, which may require large memory and power requirements. (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008)
Regulatory parity among the network topologies is another major issue in the NGN transition to IP-based systems as service providers compete more as the markets are converging more. This leads to technologies which traditionally were regulated differently to appear identical to the clients. This leads to service providers need to be more concern on not only the issues related to their competitors but also on issues that concern their consumers. (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008)
Another major NGN implementation issue is linked to traffic prioritization practices that may limit the quality of services (QoS) to consumers and maybe discriminatory access of services by the consumers depending on the type of multimedia data they are accessing. (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008)
The need to safeguard universal service is also one of the great NGN issues and concern. This is due to the requirement of re-examination of universal service policies, which may include allowing fixed networks to provide voice services. Also the service gap between the urban and rural networks has significantly increased as fibred networks are deployed in local loops in urban areas. This can however be eliminated countries adopting a common policy to ensure universal access of services. (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008)

4.2 Testing NGN Performance Using OPNET

The aim of this section is to produce and implement a simulation-based next-Generation network using OPNET IT Guru. The simulation of networks shall be trialed to make sure it satisfys the Network performance requirements issues. The approach to this problem was to use OPNET – a discrete network designing and simulation Program to build and test NGN.

4.2.1 OPNET IT Guru

4.2.1.1 What is OPNET IT Guru?

OPNET is an application used for network simulation that provides a virtual network Environment. It’s easy to Use OPNET to generate test scenarios. We can use OPNET to create “new node models” in order to define the structures for Gateway, Mobile Station, and “Serving GPRS support Node”. (OPNET technologies Inc., 2007)

4.2.1.2 Why OPNET IT Guru?

OPNET IT Guru can create, simulate and test the whole network; such as hardware devices such as routers, switches, server, protocols and individual applications. Network planner, IT manager and network administrator are now able to effectively solve problems and difficulties of networks and validate changes before starting the real network implementation. If we start implementing a network before doing the simulation of it, it will cost us a lot and waste our time to change any part of the network later. (OPNET Corporation, 2004)

4.2.1.3 Advantages of OPNET IT Guru

1. Risk Reduction

• OPNET IT Senitel (2007) describes how it “performs security checks, simulate failure and overload condition which Organizations are needed to increase their visibility required that minimize the risks.”

2. Capital Cost Reduction

• “provides an understanding and the performance of network to IT developers. This performance of the network impact can cause Achievement in investment with less expense” (OPNET IT Senitel, 2007).

3. Business Productivity Increase
• “improves application response times by solving applications network Congestion and supporting smooth application deployments since worker are dependent on application to perform their work” (OPNET IT Senitel, 2007).

4. Operational efficiency Improvement
• “provides structured, repeatable, and diagnostic and validation functions which IT organizations are dependent to solve technical problem” (OPNET IT Senitel, 2007).

4.3 Built Up a Topology Network of NGN Technology Using OPNET

This section will show out a next generation network topology built using OPNET IT Guru, The network as will be shown in the next figure will contain two routers, FTP client and FTP server, video client and video server, two workstations using VoIP service, and HTTP client and HTT

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4.3.2 Profiles Attributes

This section will show the profile attributes used in the NGN topology designed using OPNET. The profile configuration will have four rows every row contains the attributes of the above mentioned services (FTP, Video, VoIP and HTML).

4.3.2.1 FTP Profile Attributes (row 0)

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Figure 14 FTP Profile Attributes

Figure 17 shows the configurations used in the FTP profile to implement the FTP service used in the OPNET simulation. Start time put to be constant of (5), the duration to end of profile and it repeated just once at the start time. Simultaneous was the operation mode and it starts after a constant of 100 and still to the end of the simulation period and it will repeat just once at the start time.
Note: The attributes are almost the same for the four services (profiles), so all services will start at the same constant time and still to the end of the simulation. Services will repeated just once at the start time and there mode is simultaneous. 242mn

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43.7aveanne19adiFigure 20: VoIP East and West Client Workstations Configurations21_00122_0012425_001264.41.12.11.2_0011.31m8_0011y0021mm1as1acChapter 5: NGN Interconnection

The implementation of NGN networks has created a high call for interconnection products which are capable of offering interconnection packet switching services. Motivation for NGN is not simply the replacing of a switch; NGN is a solution “to the reality of the triple play services” (Voice, Internet, and TV). These services have been available via cable and xDSL. NGN brings the opportunity for further bundling of revenue services. (SITICOM, 2003)
The fixed “Public Switched Telephone Network” (PSTN) and the mobile “Public Land Mobile Network” (PLMN) network interconnections have faced a number of technological and market challenges. The two networks are logically and physically converging to NGN IP-based technology. The layouts for switched PSTN/PLMN network interconnections are different from the IP based network both at a technical level and at the associated obligations requirements level. The efforts to converge these networks have brought about questions as to how NGN interconnections should be regulated. (SITICOM, 2003)

5.1 Differences between interconnection in the PSTN and in IP-based networks

There are a lot of nuances amongst interconnection in both NGN and PSTN networks this section will summarize some of these differences.

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5.1.1 PSTN Networks

As mentioned before, the main focus of PSTN networks is upon voice services. PSTN‘s transport and service interconnection are gathered together and can’t be accessed in a separate way. (OECD, 2008)
The E.164 number is usually given to the operator, which supplies the access line to the end user (costumer). If user A make a call with user B, the operator of A’s network will not be able to terminate the call. B’s operator will only be the one who able to terminate the B end user calls. This leads to the revolution toward NGN and IP-based networks. (ERG, 2007)
Just one operator will provide customers with both the transport and the service. The transport interconnection and the service interconnection are bundled together and the charging mechanism is Calling Party’s Network Pays (CPNP). (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 2006)
5.1.2 IP-based Networks
IP-based networks unlike PSTN networks don’t focus in any particular service and they are open to provide any new service not just voice services. A main characteristic feature of the IP-based networks is the separation between transport and service. Service interconnection and transport interconnection can be separately provided, so the operators who provide service may not be the same who provide transport and their charging mechanisms is bill and “keep for the terminating segment and peering/transit for IP backbones” (ERG, 2007).
5.2 NGN for PSTN Transformation Solution
NGN technologies has brought significant improvement in the communication platform and more importantly to the “public switched telecommunication network” (PSTN) which provides network access to the households and businesses across most countries. This is through the role in convergence “in Next Generation Core Networks and the Next Generation Access Networks” (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008).
However most service providers in Next Generation Access Networks are providing VoIP services in replacement of PSTN telephony that guarantees access to emergency services and preferred quality of service, this is because VoIP services can be accessed from all over the world and on multiple platforms. (SITICOM, 2003)
Additionally the interconnection of Next Generation Networks with PSTN and mobile networks can provide great means or multimedia gateways. This has additionally enabled the business world to interface the service capabilities of PSTN/ISDN with the video on demand (VOD) and IP infrastructure (OECD, 2008).
It provides the service providers with significant benefits who like to “replace or expand their PSTNs with voIP technology” (ERG, 2007).
Among the benefits include:
1. Reduction in recurrent operational expenditure due to replacement obsolescent technology with a new type which uses an efficient, more compact and less power consuming equipments. This allows for fewer amount of nodes and utilisation of open interfaces.
2. Saving of capital expenditure arising from reduced capital investment on TDM “switch and network technology” compared to the price of IP technology as well as the shared spine of resource s amongst voice and data.
3. The NGN for PSTN Transformation solution is the basis for “Integrated Networked Business Voice Solution” using “Cisco Unified CallManager”, or the “Residential Voice over Broadband solution” to utilize IP-based voice services for the consumer market.
4. The NGN for PSTN Transformation solution supports multiple access gateways to “packetize” voice at the fringes of the IP backbone with minimal impact and/or cost on customer. It is also suitable for mass broadband deployment.

5.3 How to plan migration to NGN?

As the ITU-T mentioned, the evolution to NGN has two ways to be done. Operators have the option to replace or upgrade the existing networks to new components provide similar or better functionality.

5.3.1 The Migration to NGN Concept

Migration to the whole new IP-based networks leads to break the old strong linkage between the transport and the service and emerged the providing of converged services. (ITU-T, 2008)
• A lot of operators aim to migrate to NGNs to:
 increase their income and enhance their scope and scale
 Speed up the evolution toward all new IP-based services
• NGN represents the compilation of both PSTN and Internet by:
 Different culture.
 Different technology.
 Different Traditions.
5.3.2 Principles for the evolution toward NGN
(ITU-T, 2005)
o The Separation between control, management, transport and service layers.
o Make the best available use of the already existing resources.
o Reduce the cost of the network infrastructure and also its maintenance cost.
o Reach the same level of QoS as the existing networks provide.
o Provide mechanisms to enable users to full utilize network resources and applications.
o Make use of the new technologies in an optimal way.
o Produce new applications, services and technologies rapidly.
5.3.3 Aspects to be considered through the evolution to NGN
(Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 2006)
• Management.
• Security.
• Signaling.
• Bearer services.
• Supplementary services.
• Emergency services.
• Lease line provisioning.
• Access technology evolution.
• Simplified analysis of the current networks.
• Technical aspects of naming, numbering, addressing.

5.4 Migration Scenarios

This section will show an overview of the PSTN networks then it will discuss the scenarios of the transformation from a PSTN network to a NGN.

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Chapter 6: Conclusion

There are a number of factors today that are driving businesses to evaluate and update their networks, whether it’s adding bandwidth, adding Quality of Service capabilities or completely replacing the existing infrastructure. These factors include the consolidation and centralization of IT and the support of an increasingly complex range of IT applications. Businesses are now also looking to deploy new convergent services, such as Voice over IP and unified messaging, to reduce communication costs and improve employee productivity.
As businesses investigate potential new networking options an important influence on what’s available is that the majority of IT and communication application now use IP as the common protocol, making it possible to run everything over a single network. This is creating demand for multiservice performance levels required for specific traffic types.
These state-of-the-art networks are known as Next Generation Networks (NGNs).The key characteristics include a core network based on IP/MPLS, a broad range of IP-capable access types including cost-effective Broadband and high capacity Ethernet, and the ability to support multiple traffic types with multiple Quality of Service levels.
Compared to legacy networks like PSTN for voice and Leased Lines and ATM/Frame Relay for data, NGNs allow businesses to deliver all IT and communication applications company-wide, irrespective of where users foundation for the deployment of new applications and services as business needs dictate.
Extra work
Next Generation Networks (NGN) is a technological revolution geared towards the integration of IP-based telecom infrastructures. It aims at providing advance, integrated value added services at high speeds. NGN shall be able to provide highly innovative services that will include integrated communication and web services, provided on a single platform. NGN architecture is founded on 4 key aspects; Scalability, Reliability, Openness and Quality of service. The technology is driven by a number of business drivers; Cost reduction, Raising ARPU, Enabling convergence and Consumer/Business services.
The IP Multimedia Subsystem of NGN handles a number of communication services and enables them to interoperate, while being accessed from different end-client platforms. The convergence between NGN-IMS services and Web 2.0 serves to accommodate new innovative services and entertainment. The convergence merges the main features of the WWW and Communication worlds.
The International Telecommunications Union – Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is the main body spear-heading the development and standardization of the NGN, technologies and frameworks.
ITU-T draft (2001) defines NGN as follows:
“A packet-based network able to provide telecommunication services and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. It enables unfettered access for users to networks and to competing service providers and/or services of their choice. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users.”(ITU-T, 2001)
From the above definition we can view NGN as a “packet-based network” in which the packet switching and network elements (such as routers, switches, and gateways) are logically and physically devided from service/call control intelligence; this is used to support different forms of services over the packet-based network, ranging from simple voice telephony services to data, video, multimedia and advanced broadband. As a matter of fact the NGN seeks to integrate the telephony world that uses centralised intelligence and the internet world that uses intelligence driven by CPE to come with distrubuted intelligence network.

Key NGN Technologies.

Next generation networks have two major technology components that are based on internet technologies (The International Engineering Consortium, 2007):
• The Internet Protocol (IP)
• The Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)
Internet protocol is used with Transport Control protocol (TCP) to address computers that are connected on the internet and many other networks. There are two versions of IP addressing: Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) that is 4 bytes in length and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) that is 16 bytes in length.
Internet Protocol organizes data into packets that have the header and the message. The Header indicates source, destination and other information about the message data. IP can run on the interfaces of Ethernet and Wi-Fi since its functions at third layer of the OSI model.
Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) is used to address issues that are related to scalability and routing and can also be included in existing frame-relay networks and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). It has emerged to address the problems of quality-of-service (Qos) management, traffic engineering and “service requirements for the next-generation Internet Protocol networks” (The International Engineering Consortium, 2007).
Internet has evolved over the last few years to inspire the development of new business and consumer markets applications. Therefore, this leads to the demand for guaranteed and increased requirements of bandwidth within the heart of the network. The internet is providing converged services that include new voice and multimedia services which are created and used. This new applications are straining the existing Internet infrastructure resources, mainly with regards to bandwidth and speed. This has introduced uncertainty into what was a deterministic network.
Other problems that have emerged include the exponential growth on the number of users, transport of bits over the backbone to provide differentiated classes of services to users, and the volume of traffic. Issues pertaining to Qos and Class of service (Cos) should be addressed to the wide range of different user requirements.
MPLS plays an important role in next generation networks by forwarding of packets, routing and switching of traffic flows of packets to meet the service demand of network users.
MPLS performs the functions below as adapted from The International Engineering Consortium (The International Engineering Consortium, 2007):
• Provides support to several protocols that include the ATM, IP, and frame-relay Layer- protocol
• Interfaces and connects to existing routing protocols that includes “resource reservation protocol” (RSVP) and open shortest path first.
• Facilitates the mapping of IP addresses to simple, fixed-length labels which are utilized via several technologies, namely packet-forwarding and packet-switching.
• It is extremely autonomous of the Layer-2 and Layer-3 network protocols.
Label-switched paths (LSPs) are a succession of labels at every node from source to destination for the transmission of data. LSPs are created on detection of certain data flow (data driven) or prior to data transmission (control driven) (The International Engineering Consortium, 2007). Every data packet carries a label of fixed length which is added at the start of the cell.
MPLS protocol mechanisms uses generally two type of Devices:
• Label edge routers (LERs) are devices that support “multiple ports connected to different networks that are not similar like ATM or Ethernet and operates at the edge of MPLS network and of the access network” (International Engineering Consortium, 2007).
• Label switching routers (LSRs) participates in establishment of LSPs in the core of an MPLS network using appropriate label signaling protocol and establishment of paths to switch high speed data traffic.
In addition to the Internet protocol (IP) and multiprotocol label switching (MPLS), another underlying technology component that seems to be taking over from the application level is the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). SIP technology is becoming widely adopted for the local loop like the fiber backbone. SIP has also galvanized the power of the mobile IP network and Internet to create new generation networks of services (International Engineering Consortium, 2007). SIP can also establish sessions in the areas it is modeled such as the internet. This is because the protocol is capable of complete networked messages from various computers or mobile phones.
Furthermore, since SIP is more of the like the HTTP in the way it constructs messages, languages such as Java can be used more efficiently and effectively to create the applications. This level of advancement is making it possible to advance in the number of SIP-based services.
To date, SIP has been selected as the session control mechanism by the 3G Community “for the next generation cellular network” (SIP Forum, 2010). For example, Microsoft has already implemented and deployed SIP for real time communication strategy in its MSN Messenger, Pocket PC, and in its Microsoft XP operating system (SIP Forum, 2010).
In a nutshel, The next generaiton architecture will support the following technologies :
Voice telephony: NGN are to support traditional features such as call waiting , call forwarding 3-way calling among others with biasness on the most marketable features from a regulatory point of view.
Data services: NGN will allow for real-time establishmet of connectivity among different end-point with additional features such reliability increased bandwidth and bandwidth management and call admission features.
Multimedia: Allowing myriad users to use voice, video and/or data.In addition NGN allow forcollaborative computing.
Public Network Computing : Involves a provider providing network-based computer based services to consumers and businesses. Otherwise, a public network provider may offere certain business applications such ERPs with part of the funcitonality deployed within the network.
Unified Messaging: Allow for delivery of voice mails,fax and e-mails through common interfaces independent of the access means e.g. cell phone, PCs or any wireless data device.
Information Brokering: matching customers with service providers through advertising . finding and providing information.
Electronic Commerce: Where customers can purchase goods and service and make tarnsactions online. The transactions include processing and verifications of payments once done.
Interactive Gaming: Where users can interact on the internet and estsblish gaming sessions.
Distributed Virtual Reality: this is a type of technologically which offers users with virtual representations of “real-world events”, including: people, places, experiences in which the participants in and providers of the virtual experience are physically distributed.
Next Generation Networks (NGNs) is providing many solutions to today’s businesses and has also provided ways to enrich the transport services. Firstly, NGNs has helped in reducing the cost of non-reusable solutions by eliminating all the inefficiencies of the current proprietary services. Secondly, allows the carrier networks to cut the cost that is used in the support of sophisticated services (Sherbini, 2008).
Thirdly, NGNs will enable businesses to lessen the life-sp costs of offering new services and the time to market. Additionally, NGNs allows the carriers to remain competitive, deploy advanced services and also to enter new markets by expanding their capabilities.
In order to adopt successively in the market, businesses are provided with exclusive NGN services that include: Voice Portal which is a simple voice command that provides callers from anyplace and anytime to access information such as account balances, breaking news, updates on weather, on their stock updates and may other important information (Sherbini, 2008). Secondly, Voice Telephony services such as Call Forwarding, Call Waiting and Way Calling are also important drivers in the NGN environment. Additionally NGNs provide Data services solutions such as bandwidth-on-demand and connection reliability. Multimedia services provided by NGNs enable the customers and other users to communicate with each other while their visual information is displayed (Sherbini, 2008).
Virtual Private Networks provided by the NGNs technology provides customers with uniform dialing capabilities by combining rather large and geographically dispersed institutions’ private networks with public switched telephone network (PSTN). Additionally, NGNs technologies provide public network-based computing for consumers and businesses. These services are commonly referred to as Public Network Computing and include services such as backup of the data files, hosting of a website page, to run a computing application, among other services.
Just by interacting with a website, a consumer or customer can automatically call the call center. This is by the Call Center Services that are provided by the next generation networks (NGNs) technology. Also E-Commerce provided by the NGNs technology allows the businesses currently to allow their customers to purchase goods and services, using their credit cards electronically over the network.
Internet agents use a service provided by the NGNs technology called Information Brokering to advertise and provide information that can match consumers with service providers. Also services such as email, voice mail, Fax mail, and other web pages can easily be delivered using Unified Messaging provided by the NGNs technology.
Companies that provide home security services can use a Home Manager service provided by the NGNs technology to monitor and control the home security systems of their clients. Also other home appliances such as the energy systems and the entertainment systems can easily be controlled and monitored using this NGNs technology.
Moreover, Distributed Virtual Reality is a NGNs technology in which both the service suppliers of the “virtual experience” and their customers are physically distributed, and where the providers offer technologically generated representations of the real world events places, people or even their entertaining experiences (Sherbini, 2008).
The discussion above outlines some of the services and key solutions that can be provided by using NGNs technology. Examples of business that are currently using these services include: UK INDIA Business Council (UKIBC) that has already deployed a business to business Online Hub (B2B Hub) platform for UK and India Companies to interactively and effectively meet their business transactions online (UK-INDIA Business Council, 2012).
Search Cloud provider is also another business that is currently providing Next Generation Networks (NGNs) technology. The company provides a transformation of the business models to the Next-generation network convergence. This includes both the IP network convergence and also provides an established platform and a strategy that provides their clients with a solid return to their investment on the next-generation network.
Cisco Systems Inc., has built a very strong network infrastructures and platforms such as the CRS-1, ARS Series and Nexus Series that provides support to the mobile, video, data, multimedia, cloud or managed services. The company provides leading services to their clients and also an excellent foundation for their current and future networking needs. It also provides data services all the way to the premise of their clients.
Technology Marketing Corporation is a leading communications company in the technology community. The Company provides business VoIP services that are a core technology in the Next-generation networks (NGNs) technology. These also includes solutions such as comprehensive back up, business telephone systems, broadband, mobiles services and fixed lines (TMC, 2012).
NGN has also resulted to metro Ethernet that is substituting SONET to access computer networks. This has cut down the cost of network resources such as bandwidth requirements and increases video traffic. This results to communication and exchange of crucial business information hence increasing turnover. NGN has also addressed concerns for managers such as consistency between services rendered to their customers and by the service added value that make their product more appealing to users. NGN plays a key role in this area by ensuring that the basic customer services are not compromised.
NGN has widen the market by providing internet protocols for end to end users and intermediary network support devices which provide flexibility and support multiple end user to exchange key business information. Thus customers can access more information from the internet where they learn more of a product. It has cut down cost of operation of business activities. Capital equipment costs needed for centralized BRAS are higher than that for NGN carrier Ethernet.
The telecommunication market is growing remarkably fast. New products are continuously coming into the market and competition is increasing. On this platform NGN provides solutions to companies by putting them in a competitive edge. It maximizes investment return by using NGN, which results to innovative ideas that create a center of attention to customers by providing new services or improved version of the existing products. Hence using benefits of NGN ensures business sustainability.
In general use of NGN has played a significant role in providing key business solutions. Customers are able to meet their needs effectively due to quality of service mechanisms. Furthermore, capacity and connectivity provided by NGN is fast and reliable unless network failure occurs. NGN also bring communication into reality by providing unified voice and data being transmitted over the network. Reliability and flexibility is also guaranteed which is particularly essential for smooth running of businesses as information can be transacted at a faster rate and with reliability.

Control mechanism for multimedia traffic.

As the cost for multimedia is decreasing with time, it’s using is increasing and thus increasing the multimedia traffic. The major problem that results from the deployment of both the voice and video multimedia on the network is related to bandwidth and on the need to meet the maximum delay requirements (IPv6, 2007).
The problem associated with time delay is of major concern when the multimedia services are of real time interaction. This leads to the need and concern to improve the routing of multimedia packets through the IP networks. Some of the control mechanism used to control multimedia traffic is the migration from Ipv4 to Ipv6. This has the advantage in that; there is an addition of two fields, that is, the Priority field and the Flow Label field on the Ipv6. This IP version also provides a large addressing space that can be reserved by the multimedia addresses.
Another mechanism that is used to control multimedia traffic is the best-effort mechanism. It is developed on the idea that a network should by all means try to deliver the IP network packets but without necessarily guaranteeing that the packet will be delivered or that the delivery time will be guaranteed (Ipv6, 2007).
Quality of Service (QoS) is another mechanism that controls multimedia traffic. QoS is majorly used real-time interaction applications such as transmission of video images in live video conferencing. QoS should allow by all means possible, minimum packet delays and must be well labeled to show that it’s carrying multicast information.
Additionally, a network can generally control its traffic in two ways: by using the packet scheduler and by using buffer management. These two methods are more complex in contrast to the traditionally tradition control mechanisms that were implemented using simple methods deployed on routers (Ipv6, 2007).
The Packet Scheduler mechanism uses priority tables and each packet is given a priority prior to its transmission. This gives the packets with the highest priority a chance to be transmitted first. However, the mechanism may cause packets with the lowest priority to wait indefinitely before they are transmitted.
The Buffer Management Mechanism uses storage buffers that hold packets that arrive at a higher rate than the rate at which they can be transmitted. However, if more packets arrive that have greater capacity than the buffer, some are discarded. The mechanism should be implemented such that the discarded packets are not chosen at random but on an algorithm that specifies the function or type of application in which the packet belongs to (Ipv6, 2007).
How different networks and topology benefit from using NGN.
The migration to the NGN brings some major structural changes to the network topology. This includes changing of the network hierarchy levels and the core network nodes reorganization. The interconnection frameworks have also been revised due to the shift to IP networks in development of the internet markets. NGN has also increased access to poles and ducts of the fibred networks by new entrants. However the introduction of NGN has positive side of increasing speeds through fibred networks (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008).
As a result of migration to the IP_NGN, there is an overall reduction change in the number of points that the interconnections can take place. The number and location points at which the service provider networks can connect to the BT’s voice and data services has reduced significantly to about 105 Metro-node sites. However the locations and the number of exchanges on the local loop will probably not be affected by the facing-out of the 21CN.
Additionally NGN can lead to the geographical re-arrangement of the points of the network topology interconnections and in the reduction in these points. It may also require new investments in the infrastructure by new entrants in order to reach the points of network interconnection. Greater considerations are also put into concern on the different fibred network topologies in the NGN environment and their differing points of interconnection. NGN also has brought the advantage of decreasing the cost and complexity of controlling and monitoring many networks by integrating them into a core multimedia network thus cutting on capital and network operation costs and expenses (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008).
NGN has lent to more interactive and flexible networks that can enable businesses to integrate their services and thus ensuring centralized resources secure access and intelligence. This may include point to point (P2P) networks instant messaging, video conferencing and elimination of PSTN voice services.
NGN has therefore been very essential to strategically positioning of service providers to compete by converging their services where voice is not the only means of communication. NGN has increased the quality of both the wired and wireless access networks. This is due to greater flexibility offered by the IP-based environment. However, NGN infrastructures have brought about new regulatory and economic issues on the network topologies. This may include tapping of information and spoofing by adversaries (Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2008).
The advancement in broadband and mobile networks has led to the unification of networks. The NGN network is rapidly developing globally, being an IP based network, and NGN takes the features of different networks and integrates them all into an IP network. As standardization progresses at a global level, NGN network infrastructure offers excellent security and guaranteed delivery thus offering a seamless service. Fewer infrastructures are required in NGN, only one network is necessary to transport data, voice, and video. The transport technology is independent on the service, regardless of the service being offered (data, voice, or video), the same level of quality of service is observed. This is accomplished by encapsulating the data into packets. Since NGN is packet-based, it is capable of utilizing multiple broadband while still upholding quality of service and offering unrestricted access to all users regardless of the service.
NGN is capable of providing optimal speed and unbroken connectivity, it can be used to manage service priority and maintain communication speed without much overhead. This provides the most suitable network for video delivery, IP phones, email, and business systems data backups.
Terminal and user authentication are used to reduce spoofing and hacking attacks on the network. NGN is also used to provide masked IP addressing, filtering functionality and attack surveillance services that companies had previously built themselves. This gives a high level of internet security. NGN usage is flexible and efficient, giving mobile services and consumer services the same level of high security, high quality and high speed as if using a leased line network anywhere, at any time.
NGN has a well-defined separation between the transport part of the network and services offered above the transport portion. This implies that when a user needs to enable a new service they just need to define it at the service layer. This is because different services are independent of the transport layer.
Historically, different services had their own dedicated network (based on IP and Ethernet). NGN consolidates these dedicated transport networks into a single core transport network. NGN has migrated the circuit switched (PSTN) from the traditional architecture into a more advanced Voice over IP technology. Legacy service like frame relay has been migrated to IP VPN, this has been accomplished by emulating the legacy service on the NGN network.
In the access network, NGN requires migration from dual system legacy voice into DSLAMs which integrate voice ports, which eradicates the need for voice switching infrastructure. In the cable access, the NGN requires migration of the constant bit rate voice into Packet Cables or Cable Labs, these standards provide SIP and VoIP services. Both SIP and VoIP service use DOCSIS as the cable data standard. Although services are independent on the transport details, increased applications such as voice and video tend to be independent on the access network (GSM, 3G, Wi-Fi, xDSL, and Cable) it may be dependent to the performance of the end-user device (PC or Phone).
NGN is geared towards the convergence of various IP-based services, and the provision of them on a single platform. The key business drivers of NGN are; Reducing cost, Raising ARPU, enabling convergence and Consumer/Business services. Its architecture is key built around 4 major aspects of; Scalability, Reliability, Openness and Quality of service. This project has looked into the development of Next Generation Networks, services, architecture and Framework.

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