Magoosh GRE

Examine how high frictional and poor absorbent plain woven cotton bed sheets may be the main reason for the frictional festers and pressure ulcer in patients.

| December 7, 2012

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ABSTRACT

 The hospital bed linens are functional textiles which are expected to fulfill the comfort and hygienic properties such as moisture management, thermal conductivity, breathability, Wickability, which is very essential, natural stretch, dimensional stability, and anti bacterial activity. The commercially used hospital bed sheets are produced from plain woven cotton, polyester fibers and blends which are comparatively not better in moisture absorbency and heat transportation properties. As a result of those issues, problems like growing of micro organisms like bacteria, fungus and virus may affect hence the body heat and body fluid are not transmitted and absorbed quickly. Hence high frictional and poor absorbent plain woven cotton bed sheets may be the main reason for the frictional festers and pressure ulcer in patients.

To overcome the above mentioned problem an attempt has been made in this project to design and develop bed linen with enhanced comfort properties using different blends of lyocell and polyester. Lyocell fibre is selected for constructing the bed linen because of its good breathability, moisture absorption, dry and cool micro climate on the skin, smooth fibre surface, low wet cling effect and no electrostatic charging. Ultimately it might offer relief to people who suffer from skin diseases. From literature it was evident that blending a small proportion of polyester improves the air permeability, wicking and drying characteristics of bed linen.

Yarns are produced with 100% lyocell, lyocell/ polyester and Lyocell /cotton in 30s count. To decide on the fabric parameters with maximum comfort characteristics, fabrics were produced with four different cover factors and analyzed and compared for its characteristics. With the optimum cover factor, fabrics with plain, 2/2 twill and 1/3 twill weaves were produced from each variety of yarn and tested for its comfort characteristics.

From the results it was observed that 100% lyocell fabric has very good comfort characteristics, but addition of polyester improves its wick ability and drying characteristics which is an essential property for hospital bed linen.  Hence 100% lyocell bed linen can be used for the application where comfort and thermo physiological properties are essential, whereas lyocell polyester blends can be used for applications where water management properties are very essential.

1. CHAPTER

1.1.NTRODUCTION

Medical textiles stand in 6th position among Technical textiles. India’s market for medical textiles grows 10-12%, (T.ramachandran et al.2011 vol 7 issue 1 pp1) making it one of the fastest growing sectors in the country. However, it is currently only worth about US$500 million, insignificant compared with the global market of US$8.2 billion. The per capita spending on healthcare has gone up in India and is hovering around four per cent of the GDP and is a good sign of medical textile industry. There is a wide scope for a large scale Research and development in the field of Medical Textiles to make the shift from low value to high value products such as Functional Bed Linens, wound dressings, scaffolds for tissue engineering, sanitary products, medical linens and gown.

 The hospital bed sheets are functional textiles which are expected to fulfill the comfort and hygienic properties such as moisture management, thermal conductivity, breathability, wettability, wickability, natural stretch, dimensional stability and antimicrobial activity. The commercially available bed sheets are commonly produced from plain woven cotton, polyester fibers and their blends. The moisture absorbency and heat transportation properties of these plain woven fabrics are not very good, hence the body fluids and body heat are not absorbed and transmitted quickly and thus it makes a moist laden atmosphere conducive for growth of microorganisms like bacteria, fungus and virus. Hence the high frictional and the poor absorbent plain woven cotton bed sheets are the main cause for frictional festers and  pressure ulcer in patients.

To overcome the above problems bedlinens with enhanced comfort properties can be engineered from the yarn stage till the finishing stage is  produced by selecting proper fibers, fabric papameters and finishing techniques. So considering all aspects which suits the patients products like hospital bed linens a fiber which has all properties in nature and especially anti bacterial domination would be suitable to overcome the above mentioned problem and a manmade fiber named Lyocell derived from cellulouse was selected . It is well known in the United states under the brand name Tencel. As comparing with lyocell other fibers like polyester , cotton and rayon also have the similar properties , So an attempt has been made by blending lyocell fiber with other fibers like polyester , cotton could able to enrich the properties of the newly blended fabrics . Different weave structures give the different feel when contact to the human skin . So considering patients usability softness and absorbency should be really high so weave parameters like plain weave, 2/2 twill and 1/3 twill weaves were selected. On the contracy absorbency , water vapour permeability have been obtained higher values for Lyocell and polyester blended fabric.

1.2.  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.2.1. Aims:

  • To develop bed linens made from naturally anti bacterial fiber for the comfort, water vapour management, and irritation and itching free fabrics especially for the hospital bed patients.
  • To design and develop bed linens using lyocell fiber and blend it with polyester and cotton with different weave cover factors.
  • To analyze the combination of blends and weaves that would be suitable for the hospital applications in terms of comfort, water vapour management and other properties.

1.2.2. Objectives:

  • To research about the problems facing in terms of bed linens and to know about the lacking factors subjected to the patients un comfortless and to overcome the issues
  • Asking questions about the advantages and disadvantages of commercially used existing bed linens.
  • To produce yarns from lyocell blended with lyocell/Polyester and Lyocell/ Cotton with plain, 2/2 and 1/3 weave cover factors.
  • Testing the fabrics to meet the standards and factors like absorbency, Water vapour management, Air permeability, drying rate etc.
  • To compare the existing commercially used hospital bed sheets with the single layered fabric developed using lyocell and polyester blended  fabric

1.2.3. Research Method:

In order to plan, execute and carry out a research it is necessary to know what we mean by research in general in the specialized field. Research is the organized and systematic way of finding answers to the questions

This research is based on the importance of introducing new age fiber in medical applications especially in the hospital bed linens. Comparison of existing used hospital bed linens with lyocell blended fabrics is the key factor for this research. This is mainly based on the focus on the factors influencing on the comfort properties of lyocell fiber in hospital bed linens, the importance of blending lyocell with other fibers and the selection of weaves.

My research is based on four major sections they are

  • Review of literature
  • Observing/Describing
  • Experimenting

1.2.4.Review of literature:

To gain the knowledge of understanding about the fiber and other characteristics in this area a review of literature was done to understand what other peoples knowledge carried out and what I learnt from that particular area is discussed critically in this part with clear references and bibliography.

1.2.5.Observing and describing:

From the literature review and other sources gained, my research is based on the observation of importance of using lyocell fibers in the hospital bed lines, the purpose of blending the fiber with other fibers. Property based study on comfort is observed and described.

1.2.6.Experimenting:

In the experiment based study fabrics made up of lyocell, lyocell/ cotton blended, Lyocell/Polyester blended fabrics was produced from the initial stage of production process (spinning to testing) kept for visual reference of my project and commissioning about the woven products also discussed in this area .

2. CHAPTER 2

2.1. LITERATURE REVIEW:

2.1.1. Technical issues of lyocell:

Lyocell resiliency is moderate; it will wrinkle, but not quite as severely as rayon.  The dimensional stability of lyocell is good.  It will shrink some, but it does not exhibit the progressive shrinkage of some regular rayon.  Lyocell has a unique ability to fibrillate, which may create problems with fuzziness, pilling, or other surface changes over time, especially when lyocell fabrics receive harsh abrasion.  Elastic recovery has not been determined.

As with all manufactured fibres, the luster, fibers length, and diameter of lyocell can be varied depending on the end use. Lyocell can be used by itself or blended with any natural or manufactured fibre.

It can be processed in a variety of fabrications and finished with a variety of techniques to produce a range of surface effects.  With its ability to fibrillate under certain processing conditions, lyocell offers some unusual combinations of strength, and absorbency.

According to Natarajan K.S. et.al. Lyocell and cotton, The Indian Textile Journal, (5), 2005Lyocell performs more like cotton than rayon.  Its breaking tenacity is 4.8 – 5.0 g/d (grams per denier) dry and 4.2 – 4.6 g/d wet.  So this is only a 12 percent loss in strength.  It is the strongest of the cellulosic fibers.  Its breaking elongation is 14-16 percent and its wet elongation is 16-18 percent.  Because of its unique combination of soft hand and good durability characteristics, is produces comfortable, long-lasting apparel and furnishings.  Its high strength, especially when wet, offers some unusual possibilities in terms of wet processing and finishing.  Lyocell has a tendency to fibrillate under certain conditions.  When abraded, this tendency produces fuzzy, hairy texture. On smooth fabrics, that creates an unacceptable change in appearance.

Lyocell is another soft, smooth fibre that makes comfortable apparel and furnishings.  These absorbent fibers have a regain of 11.5 percent, so problems with static are nonexistent except under extremely dry conditions.  As with all other cellulosic fibers, thermal retention is poor.

2.1.2.Cotton and Lyocell Blending:

Lyocell can be used with cotton. Lyocell is a soft fibre like silk and highly absorbent softer. It is similar to cotton and has excellent dry and wet strength. It is also highly wrinkle resistant and fibrillates during wet processing to produce special textures. It can take high ironing temperatures if burnt these will not melt but scorch like other celluloses. It is similar to silk in stability. The other important properties of lyocell are its similarity to rayon in drape and smoothness. Lyocell can be made in to micro fibres offering depth and body to fabrics. Short fibres result in cotton like look in fabrics provides silk like appearance.Natarajan K.S. et.al. Lyocell and cotton, the Indian Textile Journal, (5), 2005.  So it can contribute to the strength of the blended yarn even to low blend levels. An interesting feature of lyocell is that the conversion of fibre strength to yarn strength is considerably higher than for other cellulosic fibre types because of high cohesion between the closely packed fibres of cross circular section in the yarn. Lyocell improves the performance of blends with cotton by enhancing strength, luster yarn regularity, spinning and wear performance.

2.1.3. Study about the structure of lyocell and its importance in the human skin:

Structure of lyocell

Fibres that spun according to the lyocell process have a nano fibrillary cellulose structure. It consists of countless non swelling, crystalline microfibers. Swelling occurs in the non crystalline regions and capillaries between the micro and nano fibrils. Therefore, lyocell fibres can be considered as hygroscopic nano-multifilament. This is responsible for superior moisture different ways towards optimizing comfort in management in textiles and contributes in many wear.

2.1.4.Importance in the human skin:

Skin Sensory Perception

The skin forms the structure of the human body and get in to intense contact with textiles. Receptors in the skin for temperature, change of movement, pressure, itching, irritations and pain communicate the feeling of skin under the impact of textiles. A substantial number of people suffer from “wool intolerance”. The scaled wool surface together with rigid fibre ends causes an itching irritation, up to optic eczema. In case of high friction on the skin a mechanical toxic contact derma tics may be formed. Especially for persons with sensitive skins, who tend to develop pathological allergic reactions such as neurodermitis, it is important not to cause any skin irritation. Especially under humid conditions, in case of a major perspiration discharge, the skin becomes more sensitive to irritation. Here primarily capacity to absorb water, the moisture permeability to the outside and the drying velocity of the fabrics are importance. Lyocell fibres offer an optimum comfort in wear on account of their optimum absorption capacity and their surface, which is smooth in comparison to cotton and wool.

2.1.5. Contact of lyocell in human skin:

A study at the university hospital Heidelberg

In a study conducted at the university hospital Heidelberg, a wearing trial was conducted under the leadership of prof. Diepgen with neurodermitis and psoriasis patients. Textile made of lyocell was tested. The result of the study indicates that more than 80% of the test persons noted clear improvement and thermo regulatory properties in the lyocell materials as compared to the materials as compared to the materials which had previously regarded as having optimum characteristics.

Refer to the research paper by,

Diepgen, T., Dermatological examinations on the skin compatibility of lenzing lyocell textiles. Lecture & proceedings, Int. Man- made fibres congress dornbim, 2004

2.1.6.Improved comfort in wear:

Blended fabrics of polyester and cotton are mainly used for the vocational clothing in order to meet the requirement of a longer service life. When textiles become humid, the friction resistance on the skin increases.  Which may be the primary cause of skin irritations and conduct dermatitis a two layer material blend with synthetic fibres on the other side closer to the skin is often used in functional textiles? The poor water absorption of synthetic fibres has negative effect on the comfort in wear, in comparison to materials with better absorption capacity.

Using lyocell fibers considerably improve the comfort in wear of blended materials due to lyocell good absorption capacity as compared with other and smooth surface compared with cotton. The results and personal observations indicate that there is a clear positive influence.

2.1.7. Practical experience with working clothes:

Working clothes for medical personnel in operating theatres are currently made of cotton – polyester blends in order to meet the high demands. The extreme temperature conditions and other stress factors in this working area frequently leads to complaints about the skin irritation and poor comfort in wear.  A medical company Wozabal Lenzing , Austria has introduced a new standard material called lyocell Doctors and nurses are advised to experience the comfort by using lyocell fabrics and they confirm that these fabrics show greatly improved wear properties compared to the conventional materials. Blending with polyester with smaller proportion with lyocell will also give the feeling of wearing as per my understanding.

2.1.8.A study about introducing lyocell and other new generated fibres:

Bamboo

Bamboo is widespread throughout Asian countries and bamboo fibers obtained from textile applications is obtained from phyllostachys Heterocycla pubescens a species known as Moso bamboo. Regenerated cellulosic fibre was first manufactured in 2002  Bamboo fibre is obtained by wood pulp which is extracted from the bamboo stem and leaves by wet spinning it is said to be the highly anti bacterial fibre says Erdumlu N;Ozipek et.al. In the textile applications.  While the characteristics and usage of bamboo bast fibre in various applications have been widely investigated researches on regenerated bamboo fibre for textile applications have so far remained quite limited. Wang and ago examined the microstructure of natural bamboo fibre in order to obtain detailed information about bamboo fibre and evaluated it in comparison with ramie fabrics. Tencel and conventional viscose fibers are good comparatively in order to understand their physical and chemical and mechanical properties. Bamboo is one of the highly anti bacterial fibers which are suitable for the medical applications.

2.1.9. Importance of lyocell in new age fibres:

With the growing demand for more comfortable, healthier and environmentally friendly products, efforts in research and development activities in the textile industry have focused on the utilization of renewable and biodegradable resources as well as environmentally sound manufacturing processes in textiles. In this respect a new kind of regenerated fibres which are an alternative to conventional ones and cotton have gained importance in apparel and home furnishing. The most commonly known novel type of regenerated fibre is lyocell which is produced from wood pulp by a viscose like process but with less hazardous environmental impact.

Among all fibres subjected to comparative research, Lyocell has the highest tenacity in both dry and wet states due to a higher degree of crystalline and molecular orientation compared to bamboo and viscose rayon’s fibres. More over as there are several voids in the cross section of bamboo and viscose rayon fibres they have higher moisture absorption capacity.

Soybeans protein fibre:

When compared to regenerated bamboo fibre Soybean protein fibre has a higher dry and wet tenacity, which is closer to that of lyocell fibre. On the other hand the moisture absorption capacity of soybean protein fibre is lower compared with regenerated cellulosic fibres.

2.1.10.Detailed Conclusion:

As a result of comparing the papers lyocell has some technical issues like moderate resiliency, it can be easily fuzzy, wrinkling nature are also said to be considered in one side. In the hand blending with polyester or cotton can improve in all properties which can be dominated with the technical issues of lyocell and it could be overcome by blending. Since lyocell is good in all parameters comparing with any other fibers. Blending of the fibers will partially fulfills the expected comfortness which is naturally missing in lyocell fibers. As a result of the experimental study about bamboo, lyocell and other regenerated fibres reveal that 100% bamboo yarns which existing information about bamboo fibre mostly consists of commercial papers by bamboo fibre producers expressing only the advantage of this new cellulosic fibre. Further researches should focus on the investigation of the performance of bamboo fibres such as Lyocell, Cotton, Viscose rayon, Modal etc. Another research topic may be the investigation of the performance of knitted and woven bamboo fabric and its behavior in dyeing and finishing processes which will be determining factors for bamboo fibre in terms of reducibility and performance of use.

2.1.11. Lyocell in nonwovens and other commercial issues:

A non woven can be defined as a textile structure made directly from the fibre rather than the yarn. The production of fabric is usually made by producing web like form of fibres. It is strengthened by bonding using various techniques.eg, thermal bonding, Hydro entanglement, Needle bonding etc. The key properties which make lyocell suitable for non woven are

  • High strength
  • Biodegradability
  • Easy processing
  • Absorbency
  • Potential to fibrillate

Strong lyocell fabrics can be made by hydro entanglement which is comparatively well to polyester and stronger than viscose. Lyocell can be bonded well with wide range of other techniques which will not discussed in detail here. It is being developed in nonwovens for wide range of end use including

  • Surgical swabs, drapes and gowns
  • Floppy disc liners
  • Filtration applications
  • Semi disposable work wear
  • Interlining materials.

The uses of lyocell don’t come cheaply. The manufacturing process of lyocell is very expensive. It is reflected in the price of all forms of the end material. Since the fabric is durable, other companies throughout the world make lyocell and though might commonly associate the material with fabrics for clothing. There are several other uses for lyocell like conveyor belts special band aids for medical field. Generally in clothing you can find lyocell in number of styles and finishes .some lyocell clothing looks like denim and some others look like suede. Lyocell also made to look like wool, cotton, rayon Garments made of lyocell is fairly expensive not only because of manufacturing, and there are very limited sources of purchasing the fabric. You can expect to pay over 100 $USD for an outfit made in lyocell.

“The viscose based staple fibres have been repositioned in the market from low cost textile fibres they are used in applications where sustainability plays an important role” says the author C.R Woodings”Developement of advanced cellulosic fibres”. 1995 pg305.  The premium priced fashion fibres delivering comfort, texture and attractive colours are very difficult to achieve in the synthetic fibres. So there are still widely used blends with polyester and cotton to add value whereas a decade ago would have added to reduce the costs.

CR. Woodings says that “Lyocell fibres have the capability to halt the overall decline in manmade cellulosic fibres”. In clothing and textiles Tencel had early success in the market sectors which are previously closed by other manmade cellulosic fibres.

In nonwoven fabrics lyocell dominates strength and bondability have further led in to variety of applications which are not possible with viscose rayon. One of the fastest growing sectors of the non woven industry, the use of courtaulds lyocell is now showing several advantages in the cellulosic fibres compared with viscose rayon or cotton.

2.1.12.New Dyeing and finishing routes of Lyocell fabrics:

Dyeing of lyocell products have been developed with new routes, creation of fluid, light weight, soft and good easy care and good comfort properties with very low processing cost methods are possible in terms of the improved dyeing properties of lyocell fibre. One of the improved dyeing properties of lyocell fibre is salt free dyeing a new method of dyeing lyocell and cotton fabrics with reactive dyes.

Cotton is said to be the king of fibres, many products are still made from cotton only, because the fibre has good strength and other terms like comfort, moisture absorption and wicking properties. Fabrics produced from lyocell cotton are breathable and moisture absorbent and have high dimensional stability says Aravin Prince Periyasamy et.al., 2011 “Salt free dyeing “AUTEX research journal, vol11 pg 14 .Cellulosic regenerated blended fabrics which are dyed with reactive dyes require large amount of salt which pollutes the freshness of water. Lyocell/ cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dyes using conventional methods pretreating the fabric with polyvinyl amine chloride at different concentrations. The author says it shows the result of “good wash fastness and rubbing fastness and it was determined the polyvinyl amine chloride was found to be effective for pre treatment in salt free dyeing of lyocell/ cotton fabrics”.

New finishing of lyocell standard woven fabric for bed linens:

The main advantage of this method is low processing cost easy care and high comfort properties. This principle used to treat lyocell fabric in open width all over to prevent fibrillation of the fibre. Combination of caustic treatment is optional. Crimp also allowed developing in fabric width shrinkage. Finally fabric is allowed to stabilize and relax to develop typical lyocell with clean non fibrillated surface.

Factors considered for finishing of lyocell fabrics:

  • When treated with caustic soda the fabric construction needs enough room for the crimp development especially for the weft crimp.
  • An adequate space needed for the warp yarn to be treated
  • Specialist continuous equipment does not require for the standard lyocell fabric finishing. Since wet swelling and wet stiffness properties of lyocell means more attention to the running properties and for cotton it needs continuous equipment
  • During processing the fabrics should be allowed to shrink
  • Large fabric piles should be avoided always better to prefer rolled batches for transporting to process flow
  • Softening agents in large quantity will not make sense.
  •  Lyocell dependant on resin finishing for the continuous finishing route. It is very essential to find out the minimum quantity of resin used are some of the limitations considered during finishing of lyocell fabrics.

Even though the dyeing properties of lyocell could be done in better ways it is very important to be making sure the end use of the product. In this project the main use of reflection is for the hospital end use products so dyeing the product with less concentration of dyes is preferable in day to day use of hospital applications. Finishing of lyocell fabrics could be done in interesting manner since the fibre is an anti bacterial, other lacking properties could also be done by advanced finishing methods which are possible with lyocell fabrics. Reactive dyes and vat dyes may cause itching and other skin problem when the fabric gets wet as per my opinion. Non toxic dyes could be used in lyocell fabrics since it is for the medical purpose.

2.1.13.A study about the improved dyeing and finishing of lyocell in market to reduce cost.

The early advances of dyeing and finishing of lyocell fibers was based on the enzymes. As now there are many new commercial routes has been developed with the same comfort and development of performance.  According to (Patrick A. White “Improvements in processing of Tencel fibers and fabrics.”)46-48   Lyocell is the soft touch aesthetic in denim in japan 1992/94 garments in the market is very comfortable to wear and very fashion ate too. The big challenge beyond this denim replacement in the market is lyocell. There is a very strong customer demand for the product become in much wider range of apparel. The market growth of lyocell effected in terms of rate of technical progress to make soft touch fabrics.

2.1.13.1.Development challenges:

There was an expensive product route required in many cases in the processing need to afford special equipments and it is applicable for a piece of fabric. To get the clear knowledge of understanding of fundamentals for the expansion of process routes and to reduce low cost. The key for this is to fibrillation of the fiber during dyeing and finishing processes. The main point that has to notice is the fibrillation occurs when wet abrasion of fibre and gives the peach surface to the fibers. Even though improper control of the fibrillation can give UN wanted effects to the appreance.

The following early discoveries in this range of processing could be expanded and make way to the next level is the garment washing and dyeing, because they were the closest to the equipment used in denims. This is an extension of piece dyeing by the use of special Nidom machines in Japan and air jet dyeing machines and other development in this area is the introduction of tumblers for piece dyed products worldwide. Finally the new technologies of lyocell fiber performance have kept a step in the large range of product opportunities. New range of process route “tow process” offers product forms for cellulosic fibers. Modifications made in terms of crimp level and finish types could customize the fiber for variety of applications. The latest advance which has made in terms of dyeing and finishing of lyocell fibers should help to set a huge market capability for the fiber.

2.1.14. A study of non woven interlining materials:

Interlinings can also be produced with non woven rather than synthetic and natural fibres. In the usage of garment the frictional properties and the surface of the fabric is very important. Interlinings are mainly used for the friction and abrasion resistance of the fabric. According to (Nazan Avcioglu et.al. 2011 Pp371) says that “because of inexpensive convenient and easy processable, non woven interlinings are used widespread in ready wear and clothing sector.” While sewing washing and ironing the durability and stability can increase. In general wear or abrasion on any material’s surface seems projection and roughness and it will become flat and becomes wearing out or frazzling or thinning in clothes and fabrics Considering surface and frictional properties important to this behaviour. According to(Fan And Y.N. Ng text res journal 71,661(2001)) “The evaluation of non woven fusible interlining based on KESF or FAST low stress mechanical systems it is found that stiffness is more important than fullness and fullness is more important than smoothness”. In the other hand According to (Clark et al.”AATCC Rev., 1,46 2001) “The dimensional stability of lyocell fabric twill weave and woollen fabric with twill weave and plain weave mohair /wool blended fabrics, fused to appropriate non woven interlinings. In this examine the unfused lyocell fabric with twill weave was not acceptable for wet clean care methods” when evaluated for dimensional stability. Wool, mohair/wool blended fabric combinations were acceptable.

3.CHAPTER 3

3.1. SECONDARY RESEARCH

The Critical discussion made in this chapter is the information which has been collected externally for the comparison of what this research meant for. In this discussion point values like comparison of lyocell fiber cross section with other fibers and their internal behavior has been discussed with figures shows the clear view of why lyocell is important and how lyocell fibers behave when they are in contact with the human skin.

3.1.1. Moisture Management:

It is very essential to absorb the liquid humidity from the skin and transport in to the outer surface and mixes in to the natural surroundings. Moisture management is an essential property for any textiles. Especially in my point of view it suits more for the hospital application products which patients were using like bed linens, gowns etc. Factors that will affect if there is a lack of moisture management they are,

  • The main factor due to improper moisture management is absorbency
  • It will automatically increases the ability of moisture to be drawn in to the fabric
  • It affects the comfort level Fabric/Garment becomes saturated
  • Less absorbency leads to regulates body temperature it improves the muscle pressure and delays exhaustion. Trapped moisture may heat up and there are chances to fatigue and diminished performance in hot conditions
  • Trapped moisture can drop in temperature and there are chances for cold, chilling and hypothermia in cold conditions.
  • The fabric or garment become heavy when there is excess moisture and there are also chances for damage of skin from chaffing.

So considering the moisture management as a primary criteria in this research the following data and figures shows that lyocell has higher absorbency level and proper moisture management level.

 

According to M. Abu rous et.al. (2005) pg27-29 Electron Microscopy:”A contribution to the structural characterization of lyocell fibers in comparison to other cellulosic’s.”  the following figures in this graph was based on the tests by using electron microscope can explain the moisture management level of lyocell is 50% more than cotton and  incomparable with polyester since the polyester fibers has very low absorbency and moisture management.

Note: The water is colored in blue

Fig 1 shows the moisture management level of cotton fabric

Fig 2 shows the moisture management level of polyester fabric

Fig 3 shows the moisture management of lyocell fabric

3.1.2. The Skin is the largest human respiratory organ:

Here are some of the electron microscopic sections of lyocell and for cotton comparing these in contact with the human skin.

Fig 4 shows the electron microscopic view of Lyocell in contact with the human skin.

Fig 5 shows the electron microscopic view of cotton in contact with human skin.

The major function of Human skin acts like a

  • Protective shell
  • Regulates the temperature of body and maintains the balance level of water.

From the electron microscopic views of lyocell and cotton we can easily understand the structure of lyocell and its contact with the human skin cross section is purely without any firs and pores that helps the skin to stay better in any conditions. Cotton cannot be said worse but comparing with lyocell the comfort property acting like another skin to the surface is not possible with cotton.   Lyocell can be support these body functions acting like a second skin.

3.1.3.Perceptibly better:

The subject of felling better depends considerably on the moisture absorption and on the surface structures of the fibers. Fibers with rougher surface lead to skin irritation and itches. Lyocell can feel soft pleasant and gentle to the skin. The reason behind this is all because of

  • Low fiber stiffness
  • Structure with smooth
  • fiber Control of temperature
  • Irritation free
    • Suitable for the sensitive skin

 

3.1.4. Comparison of smoothness:

Comparison of the surface of fiber obviously makes the difference. Comparing with cotton or wool fibers lyocell has a smoother and more regular surface. Whereas wool tends to have a scaly surface and cotton is irregular and rough.  The figures show the electron microscopic views of lyocell, Cotton and wool. You can see the difference in the smoothness properties.

Fig 6 shows the irregular and rough surface of cotton.

Fig 7 shows the scaly surface of wool.

Fig 8 shows the smoothness of lyocell comparing with other two fibers.

Lyocell is a godsend fiber for sensitive skin. The smooth fiber surface and excellent moisture absorption combined together to form a positive environment for healthy skin. Lyocell suits for sensitive skin.

According to the dermatological studies, “Wearing clothes made of lyocell improves comfort and a feel of well being”, says Prof Dr. Thomas L Diepgen et.al. “Dermatological examinations of the skin compatibility of textiles made by Tencel fibers.”2006 (85)61-67. The author says that lyocell is a chemical free and also it is important factor of sensitive skin and other asset comparatively of a natural origin.

3.1.5. Natural Hygienic:

From the literature it was evident and proved that lyocell is an antibacterial fiber and it does not give the chance to the bacteria to grow. The key value of the fiber is the perfect moisture management and it prevents the bacterial growth completely in natural manner .In moisture condition it had the capability to absorb directly from the skin and transported inside the fiber. So there will not be any chances of water film formation on the skin where bacteria could arise.

  • The factors that are considered for natural hygienic properties are
  • Reduction of bacterial growth
  • Transportation of moisture vapour
  • Chemical free
  • Irritation free

It was already discussed in the previous topic that the water absorption capacity of lyocell is definitely superior to any other fibers. The evidence of bacterial growth of lyocell fibers could fulfill the secondary research on comfort properties in a appropriate manner in such a way a study carried out in Laboratory study on the growth of bacteria on textiles submitted the comparison of lyocell bacterial growth with other synthetic as well as natural fiber in the form of electron microscopic view. Lyocell prevents the growth of bacteria naturally without addition of chemicals and additives. Whereas synthetic fibers on the other hand the increase of bacteria was 2000 fold in comparison of lyocell Refer to Laboratory study on the growth of bacteria on textiles, Univ. Prof. Dr.B.Redl Innsbruck university of medicine 2004

Fig 9 shows the electron microscopic view for the comparison of lyocell with synthetic as well as natural fibers for the growth of bacteria.

3.1.6.Critical discussion related to the research:

From the above figures of lyocell moisture management level is purely high comparing with any other fiber. It says that in contrast with other natural or synthetic fiber lyocell offers unique moisture transportation. Lyocell can be guarantee optimum conditions for the skin since the fibril structures of lyocell supports this natural fiber property. Cotton also shows in contrast in this illustration. Lyocell controls and regularly absorbs moisture. In addition Lyocell Absorbency level is 50% more moisture than that of cotton where as polyester does not absorb moisture rather than giving the user a good feel of wearing.

Lyocell in contact with the skin is one of the important factor that would dominates in the comfort properties from the microscopic views lyocell could be act as a smooth and irritation free to the user since its cross sectional figure shows that the fiber doesn’t have any pills or pores to affect the comfort comparing with cotton . And also in the smoothness properties of the fiber is also an interesting chapter which also influences in the overall durability and it would enrich the feel of the fabric which made up of lyocell. Lyocell prevents the growth of bacteria is another one main point to be noticed. Hence lyocell in this comparison fulfills all the expectations and other technical issues on evidenced with proper sources.

3.1.7. Detailed Conclusion:

Considering all aspects in this external research method lyocell dominates in all parameters like moisture management, Absorbency, Fiber smoothness, Gentle to skin, and anti bacterial behavior is what the expectation of my research said to be. Hospital bed linens are produced for the comfort factor for the patients with the strong recommendation of anti bacterial behavior. Comparing with lyocell the moisture management and other absorption capacity of cotton is low but not said to be worse. Since cotton has many other properties in the same aspects comparing with any other fibers rather than lyocell. Polyester has very low absorbency and moisture management but it has a smooth surface by originality and it has a tendency to give a smooth feel to the user. Considering all aspects blending of lyocell with cotton and polyester could be able to give a new form of fabric that stands better.

3.1.8. Textiles preventing skin damage:

Irzmanska E. Lipp- Symonowicz B” fibres and textiles in Eastern Europe

2010 vol 18 no2 (79) pp84-90 has designed and created the fabrics for the prevention of skin damage. The fabric were manufactured for the bed sheet typed used in hospital and various test carried out in different forms in the effect of bedsore skin damage focusing internal and external factors. It is mainly designed to the effect of heat and humidity transport from the patient’s body outside was tested. Blood flow disorders were tested in different areas of patient’s body. By using impendence plethysmoraphy method various fabrics were produced with different cover factors.

The main structure of fabric types used is:

Hydrophilic fibers – cotton and mad made cellulose fibre lyocell type

Hydrophilic fibers   – polypropylene and polyester fibers.

Yarn structures:

Cotton and lyocell type

Yarn twisted from hydrophobic and polypropylene fibers.

Weave structure:

4/1 satin weaves with a leap.

Fabric embossed by the process of weaving with 1/1 plain weaves.

Research was carried out by six groups of people with neutral temperature. All the patients age limit was subjected above 60s group. They were tested the parameters of yarn and weave structures mentioned above and the patients are allowed to test in perfect test conditions and found the results are being positive to the lyocell fibers. The result says that the fabric made up of lyocell and poly propylene is favorable for the variations. The fabric made up of textures polyester and cotton was favorable for the patients with fever. Refer to Fibers and textiles in eastern Europe 2010 vol18 no 2(79) research journal for the results. In comparison with the research paper submitted   it was literally evident that lyocell fabrics could be suitable for the hospital applications and other poly propylene fibers creates demand in the picture also set to be considered as a recommendation for the later development of blending those fibers and to make fabrics that reflects high in the comfort properties mainly to be considered for the hospital bed patients. So blending lyocell with the fibers which are also good in other properties is recommended for the hospital applications.

4.   CHAPTER 4

4.1.PRIMARY RESEARCH

Primary research is the research in which gaining the knowledge of improvement in the field of study of the own rather than collecting information from other related works which has been made already. The own collection of practice based evaluation makes more sense. In this part the primary research is categorized in to four important sections. They are,

  • Commissioning and production of lyocell fabrics
  • Testing the products
  • Dyeing and finishing methods

4.1.1.Commissioning of the products made woven:

Commissioning of the product is said to be very important for the visualization of the product. After all the importance of doing this project will be noticed like why and what are the advantages of doing it , and what are all the other terms should be considered and so on. So that a simple online survey was conducted only for the medical based person like doctors and nurses to know about the problems facing by the patients due to the hospital bed linens where there is lack of comfort. The survey was very simple and easily understandable only for knowing the expectations and recommendations of the individuals, since they don’t have any field of experience about the fibers and fabrics the survey was conducted very simple. The below chart can give a view of how the product was commissioned.

Analysis of existing bed linens:

100 % cotton bed sheets are collected from the hospital and the basic tests for absorbency, wicking properties and thermal conductivity, Air permeability Etc was tested to compare with the 100% lyocell, Lyocell/ Polyester and Lyocell/Cotton to know about what is special rather than that of cotton fabrics. This was tested in my previous educational institution PSG college Of Technology testing lab Coimbatore. The entire test is not based on machine or computerized but manual testing. The testing results of exiting bed linens are attached in the result and discussion.

4.1.1.1. Fiber selection and Procuring:

Fiber selection is done based on the properties like moisture management, thermal conductivity, breathability, wettability, wickability, natural stretch and dimensional stability. Lyocel – a new age fiber. Lyocel unites the advantages of many different fibers:  ‘it is fine as silk, as strong as polyester, as easy to care for as acrylic, cool and pleasant like linen, as warm as wool and absorbs more moisture than cotton.

Lyocell is stronger than cotton or regular viscose rayon and does not lose strength when wet as viscose rayon does. Lyocell stretches more than cotton, but less than viscose. It is often blended with cotton and/or polyester, mainly in woven fabrics, rather than knits. It is absorbent and comfortable for wear in conditions of high humidity because it is cellulosic which causes moisture to be wicked away from your skin. Hence lyocell is selected as the major component of the bed linen.

4.1.1.2. Sourcing the yarn:

100% lyocell fiber was purchased with the help of Mr. Ravi shanker Managing Director of M/S Arun Shanker textiles. The yarn which I had sourced was got from the Lenzing AG group branch office at Coimbatore (INDIA). Lenzing AG is the leading manufacturer of Lyocell fibers. It is very expensive and not easy to blend the lyocell fiber within certain sources which I got. For further blending lyocell fiber with cotton or polyester I was advised from Lenzing Ag group Coimbatore and supposed to contact Jim Taylor Senior project manager textile engineering for innovation and business development of Lenzing group Derby (UK) to get the project help for blending lyocell with other fibers. She helped me out of getting the blended fabrics as per my requirement cover factors of Lyocell/Polyester 70:30 and Lyocell/cotton 50:50 Dyed, Bleached and fully finished fabrics of plain weave was produced for free of cost. It was done by the own interest of Jim Taylor towards my project being done in lyocell fibers.

4.1.1.3. Spinning of yarn 30 Ne:

100% lyocell yarns are further spun with the help of Mr. Charlatan production planning controller of M/S Ramalakshmi cotton Mills Coimbatore. Initially the yarn is in cone format and it was taken to the twisting process to strengthen the yarn and made in to hank form for weaving and the yarn are further separated in to warp and weft in the same count.

4.1.1.4.  Weaving of yarn:

The weaving process was done with the help of Mr. Saravana Kumar Managing partner of M/S United weavers and processors.  It was done in the sample weaving machine (Hand loom), since less amount of yarn could not be weaved in the power loom.  For 100% lyocell yarn three weave structure has been proposed. The type of weave also affects the absorption and frictional characteristics of the fabric since air permeability and water vapour permeability depends upon the fabric cover factor. Three different types of weaves are weaved, they are plain weave, 2/1 twill and 3/1 twill weaves.

4.1.1.5. Purpose of blending:

Blending of different fabrics is done to enhance the performance and improve the aesthetic qualities of fabric. Fabrics are selected and blended in certain proportions so the fabric will retain the best characteristics of each fabric. Blending can be done with either natural or manufactured fabrics, but is usually done using various combinations of manufactured fabrics or manufactured and natural fabrics. Polyester is the most blended manufactured fabric.

Lyocell/ Polyester and lyocell/ cotton are blended in the following ratios to investigate on the comfort properties of those combinations

Lyocell/Cotton 50:50

Lyocell/ Polyester 70:30

By nature lyocell is permanently hydrophilic. The water absorption capacity is very high it can be used as 100% in comfort fabrics but it suffer by some disadvantages. The reasons for these are real and need to be addressed if the cellulosic fibers in fabric are to be increased. Cellulosic fibers absorb water in to the structure and become heavy causes stretching of the fabric, sticking to the skin and when activity ceases the fabric may feel cold against the skin. Higher level of moisture absorbed in the fabric means longer drying times.

However cellulosic fiber is perceived to be more comfortable than synthetic fabrics when worn for normal day to day activities. They are preferred for a wide range of apparel where visual aesthetics, handle and comfort are important. In this area synthetic fibers are only used in blend with cellulosic fibers or where price and or easy performance are considered more important in order to deliver these positive properties of cellulosic fibers and to eliminate negative aspects of performance, a new approach is needed. A successful cellulosic containing fabric will need to have a much lower absorbent capacity than a 100% but must also deliver the good visual properties, handle and touch of cellulosic fibers are known for. The fabric would also have excellent moisture handling capability and be easy care. The hypothesis which is tested in this work is based on this thinking.

However, if it was blended with polyester, the absorbent capacity could be controlled to an acceptable level by the blend ratio of lyocell would deliver the hydrophilicity needed for transport of moisture through the fabric and for spreading across the outer surface.

4.1.1.6. Purpose for the high proportion of lyocell:

Comfort and style is said to be the superior feel of lyocell because high proportion of lyocell is used in the background for the special comfort wears made up of lyocell. It is the consequence of the fibers’ water absorbing structure and high capacity of water vapour forced to high heat capacity and heat balancing effect for thermoregulation.

Not only it is the material of eco friendly, but process by which the fibers are made in to fabric is too. And when the clothing reaches the end of it part it is especially a kind to the environment. In fact it is 100% biodegradable. The major benefit of clothing made from this unique fabric is the moisture and temperature control the good feel offers to the wearers. Wood pulp is naturally designed to absorb moisture for the tree’s survival. The same do the fibers made in to cloth. The fabric pulls the moisture directly from the skin and releases it in to the air. Synthetic fiber such as polyester does not take in moisture at all but it will leave a film on the skins surface, and while cotton absorbs moisture. Lyocell is one and half times higher in the absorbent property while cotton and polyester can both leave moisture on the skin in humid weather, where as lyocell does not . Ensuring bacteria will never get a chance from the fabric to skin. This makes lyocell truly a safe fabric for all skin types even for the infants. Lyocell needs only 25% of the cultivable place required for cotton. Lyocell can produce fabrics with surprising level, stretch and recovery without need of synthetic or elastic fibers, more over the structure of lyocell fibers with more moisture management.

Lyocell is a textile fiber which 100% applications and for blending also. It has clearly influence in the comfort wear of textiles. Polyester does not

Dye, so you cannot change the colour through when it stains, the stain is very difficult to remove. When the garment tears wears out or gores out of style it is just a plastic when the wear is for comfort mainly used in sports.  So for the above disadvantages it cannot be used in higher proportion but it is extremely strong, durable and resistant to most chemicals, shrinking , wrinkle resistant, Quick dyeing easy to wash and care . Cotton also stands for its properties like absorption. The absorbent properties of cotton is high than polyester less than lyocell. So considering all aspects blending of lyocell fibers with cotton and polyester will give additional advantage on the comfort prospective.

4.1.2.Testing and methods:

The fabric samples was tested considering the water absorption management as a main factor, so some of the manual testing methods were being tested with the help of Mr. Vel Murugan textile testing Lab assistant PSG College Of Technology Department of Textile Technology. The tests carried out are as follows

  • Air permeability
  • Absorbency
  • Wicking
  • Spreading diameter
  • Water vapour permeability

The other tests, Abrasion test, Pilling test, Strength and elongation was done at Heriot Watt university Scottish borders campus testing lab under the guidance of Mr. Jim Mcvee

4.1.2.1. Tests and methods in detail:
4.1.2.1.1.Air permeability Test:

Air permeability of a textile fabric is the point to which the material is penetrable by air. There will be a flow of air when the air pressure differs on the both sides of the fabric. As fabric porosity increases then the air permeability increases.

Method:

Fabric specimens are placed on an air pereometer instrument and clamped to get the edges of the specimen are secured tightly and fit in to the machine. Compressed air is then forced in to a known area of the fabric specimen. The rate if air slow is adjusted so that a prescribed pressure difference is achieved between the two sides of the fabric

(R. Tugrul Oguluta 2006 “Air permebality of woven fabrics”)

Formula:

  Air permeability=   //S

4.1.2.1.2. Water Absorbency:

The capacity of a material to take in and retain a liquid, usually water in the inner pores and interstices of the material. (Booth 1968, Principles of textile testing: an introduction to physical methods of testing textile fibres, yarns and fabrics)

Method:
A drop of water is allowed to fall from a height of at least 1.0 cm to the surface of the fabric and the number of seconds required for the drop to be absorbed should be recorded. The time taken to water absorbency is noted for the combination of samples.

4.1.2.1.3. Wicking:

Transfer of liquid water through the capillary interstices of the yarns. Wicking depends on the wet ability of fabric surfaces.

Method:

A drop of water is allowed to fall from a height of 1.0 cm on to the surface of the fabric and the number o seconds required for transfer of water drop through the capillary interstices of the yarn of fabric. Specimen from outer surface is noted.(J.E booth 1968 “Principles of textile testing “.

4.1.2.1.4. Water Spreading diameter:

The same process is followed for water spreading diameter as like water absorbency

Method:

A drop of water is allowed to fall from a fixed height of approximately 1.0cm onto the surface of the test specimen that is held taught in an embroidery hoop, and the number of seconds required for the drop to be absorbed is recorded. The diameter of the water drop to absorb is noted for the combination samples. .(J.E booth 1968 “Principles of textile testing “.)

4.1.2.1.5.  Measurement of water vapour permeability:

In clothing the water vapour permeability is said to be very important factor. The human body cools itself by sweat production and evaporation during periods of high activity clothing must be able to remove this moisture in order to maintain comfort and reduce the degradation of thermal insulation caused by moisture. This is important factor in cold environments.

Method: Cup method

In British standard version of this method [9] the specimen under the test is sealed over the open mouth of a dish and it is allowed to place in the standard testing atmosphere.   The time period to the establish of equilibrium the amount of weightings of the dish. The rate of water vapour transfer through the fabric is calculated.

Water vapour permeability index is calculated in terms of (WVP). Each dish is filled with distilled water and 10 mm air gap should be between the water surface and the fabric. Adhesive is applied to both sides of the rim connected with the fabric and the size of the specimen should be covering the size of the dish. The gap between the cover ring and the fabric is sealed with PVC tapes. All dishes containing samples are allowed to place under standard atmosphere for at least 1 hr to establish equilibrium. .(J.E booth 1968 “Principles of textile testing “.)

Calculation of WVP:

Where: M = loss in mass (g)

t = time between weighing (h)

A = internal area of dish (m2)

Πd2 x 10-6

A     =

4

Where d = internal diameter of dish (mm).

(WVP) f x 100

Water vapour permeability index =

(WVP) r

 

Where, WVPf is the water vapor permeability of the test fabric and WVPr, is the water vapor permeability of the reference fabric.

 

4.1.2.1.6. Drying rate test:

The quick drying capacity of the fabric was calculated in the drying test

Method:

The sample of fabric 100x100mm2 was put on the plate of the balance and the dry weight was recorded as (Wf g). The weight of water previously added in the fabric was equal to 30% of the dry weight. Then wet weight was recorded as WO (g). The change of water WI (g) at regular intervals was continuously measured. The remained water ratio (RWR) was calculated using the following equation to find the change in water remained in the specimen from 100% to 0 % .(J.E booth 1968 “Principles of textile testing “.)

RWR(%)= [WI(g)-wf(g)/wo(g)-wf(g)*100%

4.1.2.1.7. Abrasion Test:

Abrasion of flat woven products is done to determine the abrasion resistance of fabrics by visual method where there is a significant change of appearance occurs e.g., Colour loss or two threads broken diverts from the real cover factor.

Method:

The test was carried out according to BSENISO 12947-2:1998. A similar size of fabric specimen is cut in round shape and fix in to the Martindale with proper rubbing material and allow rubbing for regular intervals and to calculate the point at which to threads broken or colour change by visually. Rubs to the end point was calculated and it is said to be the abrasion end point of the specimen.

4.1.2.1.8. Pilling test:

The determination of propensity of fabric to form pills from fuzz under test conditions used to simulate normal wear using brush pilling. This can be applicable for all woven fabrics as well as knitted fabric. This test was carried out fabric against fabric using Nu-Martindale machine for 2000 rubs based on BSENISO 12945-2:2000. Further assessment was made at 4000 and 8000 rubs respectively.

4.1.2.1.9. Strength and elongation:

This method covers the measuring of the tearing strength of the fabrics by using strip method BS EN ISO 13934-1:1999. This test measures peak force to the determination of maximum force and elongation at maximum force for both warp and weft of the fabrics depending upon the nature of the specimen, the force of its tearing will be shown series of variation peaks. The highest peak appears to be the strength of the yarn.

The calculated results are displayed in Results and discussion.

5. CHAPTER 5

5.1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5.1.1. Yarn and Fabric parameters for existing bed linen

           Table 1 showing the test results of the existing bed linens

Table 2 shows the testing results of existing used bed linens

Table 3 shows the test   results of 100% lyocell, Lyocell/ polyester and lyocell/Cotton:

Table 4 showing results of the determination of maximum force and elongation of the fabric sample.

Table 5 showing the results showing the force and elongation of the blended fabrics:

Table 6 showing the different fabric samples:

Graph 1 Showing the Water vapour permeability:

Graph 2 Showing the Absorption in seconds:

Graph 3 Showing the Air permeability of fabric samples:

Graph 4 showing the vertical wicking for both warp and weft:

Graph 5 Showing the Spreading Diameter of fabric samples:

Graph6 showing the Maximum force and elongation at maximum force of lyocell/cotton fabric:

Graph 7 shows

1.1.1. The reflection of test results:

From the test results the understanding of the results means for this project are

  1. The air permeability level of 2/2 and 1/3 twill fabrics is high when comparing with other cover factors
  2. The blended fabrics gives the food results in the water absorption properties in that 50:50 lyocell cotton fabrics dominates in absorption. Naturally polyester fiber doesn’t have the tendency to absorb water but in this case the lyocell/ Polyester 70:30 fabrics show good water vapour absorption capacity rather than 100% lyocell is the point to be noticed.
  3. The spreading diameter of 100% lyocell fabrics, 70:30 lyocell/polyester blended and 50:50 lyocell cotton is in maximum extend .
  4. The vertical wicking of 1/3 lyocell twill weave, lyocell/polyester and lyocell/ cotton reflects good wicking ability for both warp and weft comparing with other two samples.
  5. The water vapour permeability of 100% lyocell is very good. Moreover 70:30 Lyocell/Polyester blended fabrics also show good result in the water vapour permeability also gives weight age to the blended fabrics. Whereas cotton is not to say bad also.
  6. The strength and elongation of lyocell/Polyester fabric reflects in the higher strength and elongation due to the presence of polyester.
  7. The abrasion of the 100% lyocell fabric meets the level of 6451 rubs to end point which is comparatively good and meets the standard level but not in the higher rate.
  8. The pilling test of 2/2 twill and 1/3 twill also meets the standard equation of 5 and also not in the higher rate of rubs.

1.1.2. Advantages of lyocell fibre:

In the observation in terms of the original study and the practice of work done it was observed that lyocell fibre has the following advantages. They are

  • Lyocell fibre naturally has the anti bacterial tendency which suits for all applications which needs more hygienic consideration.
  • Lyocell fiber has the tendency of natural cooling than cotton.
  • Lyocell fibre has outstanding moisture management as evident from the results
  • Felling lyocell fabrics in terms of giving contact to the skin could be sense the smooth structure of the fibre.
  • It has the tendency to change according to the weather even it is cold or hot, maintains perfect humidity could be say user friendly fibre.
  • The smooth surface of the fiber does not allow giving irritation to the skin.
  •  Suits for the sensitive skin.
  • Variety of lustrous look for different weave proportions
  • High tenacity.
  • 100% organic and eco friendly fibre.

1.1.3. Limitations of lyocell fibers:

  1. Low surface energy is the main disadvantage of lyocell fiber, which means it is quite difficult to use all kinds of dyes to bind with it. But it is not forced to say that it is impossible dyeing with lyocell since dyes required for lyocell are more expensive. The dyes should not cause any side effects since lyocell is the product globally using for the sensitive applications like skin. So lot of importance will be given if it is supposed to be dyed. It also pulled up to the situation to make the finished products more expensive. It also has the tendency to fibrillate causes effect known as pilling like small balls of fiber formation on the surface. This problem will affect in one side if cost is considered the most.
  2. Sourcing the fiber is quite difficult since lyocell products are manufactured in very limited access all over
  3. The cost of fiber is also expensive comparing with other cellulosic groups.

2. CHAPTER 6

2.1. RECOMMENDATIONS

2.1.1.Recommendations for marketing:

  • Participating in the free trade zones such as Textile fair (India), European Union, NAFTA, MERCOSUR etc for the introduction of the product.
  • Display certification from health care , approach medical companies, Medical persons and make use of the product to know about improved qualities comparing with the existing products
  •  Creating a brand awareness of lyocell and making a marketing effort in the textile chain
  • Specification of the advantage of the product to the medical board  convincing the medical persons
  • To make reach of message like ecology, multi functionality, Easy care etc.
  • Classify the field of applications like Apparel woven, Apparel knitted, Home textiles, and other usage like industrial applications.

The sales of the product could be done by direct sales method and merchandising method.

2.1.1.1. Direct sales:

To convey the message face to face with sales representatives and explain about the usage, advantages, end use of the lyocell

2.1.1.2. Merchandising:

Create and achieve the awareness of the product to the maximum level. Linking supply sources in terms of demand and the message about advertising and promotion of sales and back to fashion trends may influence short term measurement beyond the long term strategy. Creating global network of merchandisers, show rooms will be support marketing effort and values. A product portfolio could be send for fabric producers of woven as well as knitted could be included with suppliers and representatives list.

2.1.1.3. Advertising and promotion:

  • Approaching the hospitals to make use of the product and getting comments from them.
  • Through internet
  • Print work
  • New product logos
  • Modernizing the product image

2.1.1.4. In Service:

 

  • Quality control
  • workshops and seminars
  • Collaborations with machine manufacturers
  • . Making the easy availability of the product.

2.1.2.  Personal recommendations:

My recommendation towards lyocell blended fabrics need more attention in the marketing side since the fiber and its usage is not well known to the consumers and it is not also easily available in the market. Make use of getting easy availability of the product could enhance the fiber in the next level and it will help to introduce more products from other applications also.

2.1.2.1.  My recommendation of lyocell fiber in other applications:
  • Since lyocell is an anti bacterial fiber in nature it could be use in the inner layer of band aids that would help to cure the wound or heal very fast. Lyocell has very good moisture management level both 100 % and lyocell blended fabrics. So it could be use in the applications like car seat cover and baby trolleys where more level of water absorption would be needed. For this I would recommend lyocell/Polyester blended fabric will be more suitable.
  • It could be use in the seamless knitted garments and it also acts like pressure garment.
2.1.2.2.    My recommendation of lyocell fiber in other applications:
  • Since lyocell is an anti bacterial fiber in nature it could be use in the inner layer of band aids that would help to cure the wound or heal very fast.
  • Lyocell has very good moisture management level both 100 % and lyocell blended fabrics. So it could be use in the applications like car seat cover and baby trolleys where more level of water absorption would be needed. For this I would recommend lyocell/Polyester blended fabric will be more suitable.
  • It could be use in the seamless knitted garments and it also acts like pressure garment.

3. CHAPTER 7

3.1. CONCLUSION

Lyocell fiber which has more comfort characteristics is selected and to enhance its thermo physiological properties. The fiber was blended with cotton and polyester in the form of plain weave. 100% lyocell was produced in three different weaves like plain, 2/2 and 1/3 respectively. Small amount of polyester can enhance the wickability and drying characteristics of fabrics. Hence a new fabric developed using lyocell/Polyester blend can fulfill the quality requirements of functional bed linen. 100% lyocell fabric is highly soft, smooth and cool. So these fabrics are recommended for the products where comfort is a major criterion.  Addition of lyocell with polyester blend can be used in places where moisture management is an essential property. For example, hospital bed lines used for patients who sweat more can be made of lyocell/Polyester. Even though the fabric produced was in plain weave shows results reflecting good water and moisture vapour absorption, so different weave variations to the particular blend can also perform well as before.

4.  BIBILOGRAPHY

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Diepgen,T. “Dermatological examinations on the skin compatibility of lenzing lyocell textiles”. Lecture & proceedings, Int. Man- made fibres congress dornbim, 2004

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Woodings, CR 1995, ‘The development of advanced cellulosic fibres’, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 17, 6, p. 305, EDS Foundation Index.

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Abu-Rous, M, Ingolic, E, & Schuster, K 2006, “Visualisation of the fibrillar and pore morphology of cellulosic fibres applying transmission electron microscopy”, Cellulose, 13, 4, pp. 411-419, World Textiles,

K.S. Natrajan. (2005). Lyocell and cotton. indian textile. 5 (1), 10-12

Thomas L. Diepgen a , K.Christian Schuster b. (2006). dermatological examinations of the skin compactablity of textiles made from tencel fibers. Lenzinger Berichte. 85 (1), 61-67.

rzmanska E. Lipp- Symonowicz B. (2010). Fibers and textiles in eastern Europe. Textile journal. 18 (2(79)), 84-90.

. Tugrul Oguluta (2006). Air permeability of woven products. Textile and apparel technology and management. 5 (2), 1-4.

Booth 1968, Principles of textile testing: an introduction to physical methods of testing textile fibres, yarns and fabrics / by J.E. Booth, Heywood Books, 1968. SITRA library hand book.

BSENISO 12947-2:1998 “ Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Martindale Abrasion Tester Method.”

BS EN ISO 13934-1:1999 “ Determination of maximum force and elongation at maximum force using strip method.”

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